This book covers the development of economics in Japan from the inter-war period to the 2000s focusing on the international theoretical contributions of Japanese economists. The first focal point is the international contributions of Japanese economists before and after World War II. The second focal point is the controversies concerning macroeconomic policies in Japan in the period of the 'Great Depressions' in the 1930s and the period of Japanese 'Great Stagnation' in the 1990s and the early 2000s. In short, economics in Japan is considered from both a theoretical and a policy-oriented point of view. The intimate relationship between economic theory, thought and policy is also fully examined, as well as the development of both academic and non-academic (practical) Japanese economics and the influence of Marx, Walras, Keynes, Fisher and Cassell.