A central component of justice is how the economic goods are distributed in a society. Philosophers contribute to distributive justice debates by providing arguments for principles to guide and evaluate the allocation of economic goods and to guide the design of institutions to achieve more just distributions. This volume includes both seminal and recent work by philosophers, covering a range of representative positions, including libertarian, egalitarian, desert, and welfare theorists. The introduction to the volume and the selections themselves are designed to allow students and professionals to see some of the most influential pieces that have shaped the field, as well as some key critics of these positions. The articles intersect in such a way as to develop an appreciation of both the types of theories and the central issues addressed by theories of distributive justice. Furthermore, the choice of authors in this collection reflects an appreciation of the influence of institutions in general, markets in particular, and even luck on the distribution of economic goods.