Measurement and detection of radiation

Nicholas Tsoulfanidis, Sheldon Landsberger

The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. New to the Third Edition A new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, nonproliferation, and homeland security Updates to all chapters and subtopics within chapters, as needed Many new references and a completely updated bibliography This third edition of a classic textbook continues to serve new students entering the nuclear science and engineering fields. It enables them to select the proper detector, analyze the results of counting experiments, and perform radiation measurements that follow proper health physics procedures. A solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption.

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  • Introduction to Radiation Measurements What Is Meant by Radiation? Statistical Nature of Radiation Emission The Errors and Accuracy and Precision of Measurements Types of Errors Nuclear Instrumentation Statistical Errors of Radiation Counting Introduction Definition of Probability Basic Probability Theorems Probability Distributions and Random Variables Location Indexes (Mode, Median, Mean) Dispersion Indexes, Variance, and Standard Deviation Covariance and Correlation The Binomial Distribution The Poisson Distribution The Normal (Gaussian) Distribution The Lorentzian Distribution The Standard, Probable, and Other Errors The Arithmetic Mean and Its Standard Error Confidence Limits Propagation of Errors Goodness of Data-x2 Criterion-Rejection of Data The Statistical Error of Radiation Measurements The Standard Error of Counting Rates Methods of Error Reduction Minimum Detectable Activity Counter Dead-Time Correction and Measurement of Dead Time Review of Atomic and Nuclear Physics Introduction Elements of Relativistic Kinematics Atoms Nuclei Nuclear Binding Energy Nuclear Energy Levels Energetics of Nuclear Decays The Radioactive Decay Law Nuclear Reactions Fission Energy Loss and Penetration of Radiation through Matter Introduction Mechanisms of Charged-Particle Energy Loss Stopping Power Due to Ionization and Excitation Energy Loss Due to Bremsstrahlung Emission Calculation of dE/dx for a Compound or Mixture Range of Charged Particles Stopping Power and Range of Heavy Ions (Z > 2, A > 4) Interactions of Photons with Matter Interactions of Neutrons with Matter Gas-Filled Detectors Introduction Relationship between High Voltage and Charge Collected Different Types of Gas-Filled Detectors Ionization Chambers Proportional Counters Geiger-Muller Counters Gas-Flow Counters Rate Meters General Comments about Construction of Gas-Filled Detectors Scintillation Detectors Introduction Inorganic (Crystal) Scintillators Organic Scintillators Gaseous Scintillators The Relationship between Pulse Height and Energy and Type of Incident Particle The Photomultiplier Tube Assembly of a Scintillation Counter and the Role of Light Pipes Dead Time of Scintillation Counters Sources of Background in a Scintillation Counter The Phoswich Detector Semiconductor Detectors Introduction Electrical Classification of Solids Semiconductors The p-n Junction The Different Types of Semiconductor Detectors Radiation Damage to Semiconductor Detectors Relative and Absolute Measurements Introduction Geometry Effects Source Effects Detector Effects Relationship between Counting Rate and Source Strength Introduction to Spectroscopy Introduction Definition of Energy Spectra Measurement of an Integral Spectrum with a Single-Channel Analyzer (SCA) Measurement of a Differential Spectrum with an SCA The Relationship between Pulse-Height Distribution and Energy Spectrum Energy Resolution of a Detection System Determination of the Energy Resolution-The Response Function The Importance of Good Energy Resolution Brief Description of a Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) Calibration of an MCA Electronics Introduction Resistance, Capacitance, Inductance, and Impedance A Differentiating Circuit An Integrating Circuit Delay Lines Pulse Shaping Timing Coincidence-Anticoincidence Measurements Pulse-Shape Discrimination Preamplifiers Amplifiers Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) Multiparameter Analyzers Data Analysis Methods Introduction Curve Fitting Interpolation Schemes Least-Squares Fitting Folding and Unfolding Data Smoothing Photon (Gamma-Ray and X-Ray) Spectroscopy Introduction Modes of Energy Deposition in the Detector Efficiency of X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors: Definitions Detection of Photons with NaI(Tl) Scintillation Counters Detection of Gammas with Ge Detectors CdTe and HgI2 Detectors as Gamma Spectrometers Detection of X-Rays with a Si(Li) Detector Charged-Particle Spectroscopy Introduction Energy Straggling Electron Spectroscopy Alpha, Proton, Deuteron, and Triton Spectroscopy Heavy-Ion (Z > 2) Spectroscopy The Time-of-Flight Spectrometer Detector Telescopes (E dE/dx Detectors) Position-Sensitive Detectors Neutron Detection and Spectroscopy Introduction Neutron Detection by (n, Charged Particle) Reaction Fission Chambers Neutron Detection by Foil Activation Measurement of a Neutron Energy Spectrum by Proton Recoil Detection of Fast Neutrons Using Threshold Activation Reactions Neutron Energy Measurement with a Crystal Spectrometer The Time-of-Flight Method Compensated Ion Chambers Self-Powered Neutron Detectors (SPND) Concluding Remarks Activation Analysis Introduction Selection of the Optimum Nuclear Reaction Preparation of the Sample for Irradiation Sources of Radiation Irradiation of the Sample Counting of the Sample Analysis of the Results Sensitivity of Activation Analysis Interference Reactions Advantages and Disadvantages of the Activation Analysis Method Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis Neutron Depth Profile Neutron Radiography Health Physics Fundamentals Introduction Units of Exposure and Absorbed Dose The Relative Biological Effectiveness-The Dose Equivalent Dosimetry for Radiation External to the Body Dosimetry for Radiation Inside the Body Internal Dose Time Dependence-Biological Half-Life Biological Effects of Radiation Radiation Protection Guides and Exposure Limits Health Physics Instruments Proper Use of Radiation Applications of Radiation Detection Introduction Health Physics within Nuclear Power Plants and Radiological Facilities Portal Monitors and Passive Detection Interactive Radiation Detection Systems Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Radiation Detection Coincidence and Anti-Coincidence Detection Systems Nuclear Medicine Detection of Nuclear Materials/Nonproliferation Issues Appendix A: Useful Constants and Conversion Factors Appendix B: Atomic Masses and Other Properties of Isotopes Appendix C: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Sources Commonly Used Appendix D: Tables of Photon Attenuation Coefficients Appendix E: Table of Buildup Factor Constants Index Problems, Bibliography, and References appear at the end of each chapter.

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書名 Measurement and detection of radiation
著作者等 Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas
Landsberger Sheldon
出版元 CRC Press
刊行年月 c2011
版表示 3rd ed
ページ数 xxiii, 493 p.
大きさ 27 cm
ISBN 9781420091854
NCID BB04563356
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言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国