Why do conceptions of 'learning' vary so much in L2 learning research? Is there a conceptualisation of 'learning' to which members of different schools of SLA can subscribe? These questions are answered in this exciting new collection by world-leading researchers who explore and unpack the different conceptions of 'learning' involved in research into learning and teaching a language. By showing how conceptions of learning centre on what is meant by both 'language' and 'learning', contributors highlight some of the key similarities and differences in SLA research and demonstrate that common ground can be found. Chapters cover cognitive, socio-cultural and Conversation Analysis approaches and contain proposals for overcoming the cognitive/social divide. Studies investigate the development of syntax, vocabulary, spoken interaction and tackle current issues such as multiple conceptions of language, participation, the influence of technology, and complexity theory.