Gender is now recognized as a fundamental organizing principle for economic as well as social life, and related research has grown at an unprecedented pace in the recent decades across branches of economics. The volume takes stock of this research, proposes novel analytical frameworks and outlines further research directions. It grew out of the Summer School of International Research in Pontignano (University of Siena) that traditionally brings together the most representative scholars in the chosen field.The thirteen essays included in the volume cover recent advances in gender related issues across disciplinary branches, from Economic History and the History of Economic Thought to Macroeconomics, Household Economics, the Economics of Care Work, Labour Economics, Institutional and Experimental Economics. The volume is primarily addressed to graduate students in Economics and is an essential companion for researchers in the area of Gender Economics. As most essays are written in a non-technical language it is also of interest to a wider audience, including specialists in Sociology, Demography and History.