Following an overview of nanotechnologies for diagnostic purposes, this book goes on to look at nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance, molecular and other imaging applications, as well as the potential roles of carbon nanotubes and bionanoparticles in biomedical applications. The book's main focus is on drug delivery systems based on nonporous and nanosize materials, solid lipid and polymeric nanoparticles, intelligent hydrogels, core-shell nanoparticles, and nanocapsules, rounded off by a discussion of their biomedical applications. The final part of this volume covers such biomedical strategies as gene therapy, synthetic gene-transfer vectors and targeted delivery.
Foreword. Preface. List of Contributors. 1 Nanotechnologies for Diagnosis - Present and Future (Gareth A. Hughes). 1.1 Introduction to Patient Diagnostics. 1.2 Nanotechnology and Patient Diagnostics. 1.3 Optical. 1.4 Electrical. 1.5 Magnetic. 1.6 Mechanical. 1.7 Imaging Diagnostics. 1.8 Nanotechnology-enhanced Tools. 1.9 Nanotechnology and the Future of Patient Diagnostics. References. 2 Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles of Iron Oxides for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications (Jean-Marc Idee, Marc Port, Isabelle Raynal, Michel Schaefer, Bruno Bonnemain, Philippe Prigent, Philippe Robert, Caroline Robic, and Claire Corot). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Physicochemical Characteristics. 2.3 Pharmacology and Metabolism. 2.4 Current Clinical Uses and Future Developments. 2.5 Conclusion. References. 3 Carbon Nanotube-based Vectors for Delivering Immunotherapeutics and Drugs (Alberto Bianco, Wei Wu, Giorgia Pastorin, Ce'dric Klumpp, Lara Lacerda, Charalambos D. Partidos, Kostas Kostarelos, and Maurizio Prato). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Chemical Functionalization of CNTs. 3.3 CNTs in Diagnosis. 3.4 CNT Cell Uptake. 3.5 CNTs as Delivery Devices for Antigens and Adjuvants. 3.6 CNTs for Drug Delivery. 3.7 CNTs for Gene Transfer. 3.8 Health Impact of CNTs. 3.9 General Conclusions. Acknowledgments. References. 4 Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Molecular Imaging (Sung Kyun Han, Ree Sun Kim, Jin Ho Lee, Giyoong Tae, Sun Hang Cho, and Soon Hong Yuk). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Core-shell Nanoparticles with a Lipid Core. 4.3 Core-Shell Nanoparticles with a Polymeric Core. 4.4 Core-shell Nanoparticles with a Metallic Core. 4.5 Conclusions. Acknowledgments. References. 5 Nanotechnologies for Targeted Delivery of Drugs (Pavel Broz! and Patrick Hunziker). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Basic and Special Pharmacology. 5.3 Strategies for Targeted Delivery - Observed in Nature. 5.4 Strategies for Targeted Delivery - Designed by Man. 5.5 Conclusion and Outlook. References. 6 Nanoporous and Nanosize Materials for Drug Delivery Systems (Yoshinobu Fukumori, Kanji Takada and Hirofumi Takeuchi). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Nanomaterials for Coating. 6.3 Materials for Nanoparticulate Therapy and Diagnosis. 6.4 Nanoporous Materials as Drug Delivery System Carriers. 6.5 Physicochemical Aspects of Porous Silastic Materials for Drug Delivery. References. 7 NANOEGG1 Technology for Drug Delivery (Yoko Yamaguchi and Rie Igarashi). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 New Nanoparticles with a Core-Shell Structure: The NANOEGG System. 7.3 NANOEGG for Dermatological Aspects. 7.4 Why does NANOEGG Show the High Performance on the Improvement of Brown Spot and Wrinkles? 7.5 NANOEGG for Other Indications. 7.6 NANOEGG for Other Drugs. 7.7 Conclusion. References. 8 Polymeric Nanomaterials - Synthesis, Functionalization and Applications in Diagnosis and Therapy (Jutta Rieger, Christine Jerome, Robert Jerome, and Rachel Auzely-Velty). 8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Polymer Materials Used for the Synthesis of Nanoparticles. 8.3 Preparation of Polymeric Nanoparticles. 8.4 Surface Functionalization. 8.5 Applications. 8.6 Conclusion and Perspectives. References. 9 Polymeric Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery (Paraskevi Kallinteri and Martin C. Garnett). 9.1 Introduction: Application of Nanoparticles for Noncancer Applications. 9.2 Drug Delivery. 9.3 Conclusions. References. 10 Solid Lipid and Polymeric Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery (Jose Luis Pedraz, Gorka Orive, Manoli Igartua, Alicia R. Gasco'n, Rosa M. Herna'ndez, Maria Angeles Solinis, and Amaia Esquisabel). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 SLNs. 10.3 Polymeric Nanoparticles. References. 11 Intelligent Hydrogels in Nanoscale Sensing and Drug Delivery Applications (J. Zach Hilt). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Intelligent Hydrogels. 11.3 Sensor Applications. 11.4 Drug Delivery Applications. 11.5 Conclusions. References. 12 Nanoshells for Drug Delivery (Melgardt M. De Villiers and Yuri Lvov). 12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Metallic Nanoshells. 12.3 Nanoshells Formed by Polyion E-LbL Self-assembly. 12.4 Conclusion. References. 13 Bionanoparticles and their Biomedical Applications (L. Andrew Lee, Hannah N. Barnhill, and Qian Wang). 13.1 Introduction. 13.2 BNPs. 13.3 Genetic and Chemical Alterations of BNPs. 13.4 BNPs in Therapeutics. 13.5 Immune Response. 13.6 Future Directions. Acknowledgments. References. 14 Nanotechnology for Gene Therapy - HVJ-E Vector (Hironori Nakagami, Yasuhiko Tabata, and Yasufumi Kaneda). 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Biological Barriers to Gene Transfer. 14.3 HVJ-E Vector. 14.4 Biocompatible Polymer with HVJ-E. 14.5 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Medicine. 14.6 Conclusion. References. 15 Nanotoxicology of Synthetic Gene Transfer Vectors: Poly(ethyleneimine)- and Polyfectin-mediated Membrane Damage and Apoptosis in Human Cell Lines (Seyed M. Moghimi). 15.1 Introduction. 15.2 PEI as a Nonviral Vector. 15.3 PEI-mediated Cell Dysfunction and Apoptosis. 15.4 Cell Damage and Apoptosis with Related Polycations and Cationic Lipids. 15.5 Conclusions and Future Outlook. References. 16 Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Theoretical Rationale, Present Status and Future Perspectives (Gang Liu, Ping Men, George Perry and Mark A. Smith). 16.1 Introduction. 16.2 Rationales: The Ability of Nanoparticles to Cross the BBB - A Useful Tool to Deliver Drugs into the Brain. 16.3 Status: Nanoparticle Targeting Transport of Therapeutic Agents for Potential Treatment of AD. 16.4 Perspectives. Acknowledgments. References. Index.