The Polish Crisis of 1980/81 - triggered by the emergence of the first independent trade union in communist Poland, Solidarity - signalled a turning point in the Cold War. Abstaining from military intervention, the Warsaw Pact left Poland under the leadership of Jaruzelski to impose martial law. Only with the benefit of hindsight do opinions converge to describe the crisis as an indicator of the imminent collapse of Soviet control. This book examines the response of the Western Alliance to these events. The author analyses the different views of Europe and the United States regarding enforcement in East-West relations and the opposition in Western Europe to the American approach. This case exemplifies the lasting differences in attitude within the Western Alliance.