A law enforcement sourcebook of Asian crime and cultures : tactics and mindsets
Douglas D. Daye ; with a foreword by John E. McKenna
Even in multicultural North America, few whites, blacks, or Hispanics have extensive experience or understanding of Asian culture. For experienced police officers, intelligence analysts, correctional officers, and prosecutors, the problems of cultural differences in behavior remain complex and problematic. This book addresses these specific law enforcement problems, and supplies law enforcement professionals with information and strategies for easier arrests, more accurate intelligence, more successful prosecutions, and fewer problems during incarceration.
INTRODUCTION "If You Don't Have Much Time" Things to Keep in Mind Some Reasons to be Cautious To Others, We Have a Peculiar Culture, Too! How Much Cross-Cultural Understanding Is Enough? A Checklist of Our Own Tolerances for Differences Be Skeptical! Basics - What? Why? How? - Benefits, and Sources Seven Basic Questions What are Some of the Benefits for Police? What Cross-Cultural Data Cannot Do: Guidelines, Limitations, and Packaging Sources, Methods, Applications: Academic and Law Enforcement Why Some Asians and Asian-Americans may not Like this Book Culture, Police, and Asian Crime The Cross-Cultural Context of Asian Crime in America What Is Culture? How Are Cultural Traits Conceived and Used? Cross-Cultural Competency Is Not Just Language Competency Police as Cross-Cultural Learners Police as Potential Cross-Cultural Specialists CULTURAL "DO'S AND DON'TS" Public Relationships Asian Images of Police To Help Asians Get a Better Image of Cops Asian Families Come First Check with the Amah Know and Be Known Funerals and Weddings Uniform vs. Plainclothes Respect and Social Levels Role Playing Body Language How Not To Sit Yakuza Body Language Humility Privacy Avoidance of Public Confrontation Honor the Elderly Indirectness "Face" Provocation and "Face" Guanxi Street Cops and Guanxi Gossip is Good Beeper/Pager Numbers Street Negotiations Shake Hands Only with Older Recognized Gang Leaders, not with Younger Gang Members Intimidate Gang Suspects by Sitting Next to Them Foreign Courtesy Terms Don't Use Slang, Parables, or 'Pop' References Observe and Balance Paybacks Avoid Co-Option Holidays, Grand Openings, and Surveillance Questionable Community Translators Check Whether the Bunsen Burners are on in the Jewelry Store Asian Newspapers Asian Public Apologies Folk Medicine and Alleged Child Abuse Passport Profiles Forged U.S. Visas and Altered Passports Passports, Visas, and Claims of Diplomatic Immunity Diplomatic Auto License Plates Person-to-Person Relationships Attitudes and Applications Speak Quietly Personal Space Don't Touch Spend Time in the Streets Visit the Temples Identifying Ethnic Groups Gestures Other Physical "Don'ts" Business Cards Applause Spitting Greetings Polite Topics of Conversation Silence Privacy Saying "No" Watch Out for the "Yes" Answers Get Search Warrants, Not Consent To Search Do Beat Around the Bush Removing Shoes Don't Push Things Around with Your Feet Interviewing Witnesses, Victims, and Monks Address Elders First Masks and Fingerprint Identification Names and Dialect Identification Ask Direct and Specific Questions: Information will not be Volunteered Interviews with Police Are "Doing Business" Get the Specific and Cultural History of the Suspect's Extended Family Special Family Names Check Beauty Salon Connections Quietly Check with Dads for Any "Extracurricular Activities" Travel Agents Marian Days Wives, Concubines, and Mistresses Threats of Family Gravesite Desecration in Asia Do the Victims Understand the Bail System? Hoarding Cash at Home Greeting Monks, Religious Leaders, and Family Elders Use Quiet Manners with Unfamiliar Religious Objects Use an Interpreter with a Monk or Religious Leader Witnesses and Some Cross-Cultural Aspects of Trials "But Asians Won't Testify" Be a Long-Term Friend Asian Friendship Home Protection Before Trial Do Not Make Witnesses Lose "Face" Protect Witnesses from Gangs Subpoena Blanks Avoid Loudmouthed Clerks or Reporters Use the District Attorney's Explanatory Time for Relevant Cross-Cultural Topics Educate the Jury About Asian Names Use Posterboards Suspect's Appearances Photograph their Ears Explain the Uses of Standard Telegraphic Code for Chinese Names Home Protection After the Trial Suspect's Records and Affiliations Know the Suspect's Ethnic Background Records and Standard Telegraphic Code Get Three Handwriting Samples of the Suspect's Name in Chinese, Japanese, or Korean Characters Photo Books Check Local Hair Salons for Photographs Gang Mobility Vietnamese Community "Safe Houses" Telephone Record Links Check Motel Phone Books Check Home Country and Regional Connections Check Refugee and/or Dialect Connections Women's Married Names Aliases may be Legitimate "INS" Names Check School and Refugee Organization Connections Legal Ages Use INS Agents Victims Profiles Interrogating Suspects and Recruiting Informants Are There Any Significant Differences? Suggested "Do's and Don'ts" Assumptions of Reid Interrogation Across Cultures Interrelations and the Need for Cultural Knowledge Interrogating Home-Invasion Robbery Suspects Recruiting Informants Interrogation and McCarthy's "Gang Crime Magic" Asian Youth Gangs What is a Gang and Who are Its Members? Why Do Some Youths Become Gang Members? Are Gangs Largely of a Single Ethnic Type? Levels of Adherence to a Gang Documentation for Identifying Gang Membership Gangs as Surrogate "Families" Home-Invasion Robbery Victim's Profile Organizational Models and "Pickup" Gangs Caucasian "Throw-Away" Gang Members On the "Toughness" of Asian Gang Members Numbers, Gambling, Tattoos, Food, and Regionalism Some Cross-Cultural Crime-Related Aspects of Numbers Gambling Tattoos and Slang Food and Eating Regionalism, Anti-Stereotypes, and Role-Playing ETHNIC MINDSETS, PROFILES, AND RELIGIONS Contrasting Chinese and American Mindsets An Introduction to Mindsets The Importance and Limitations of Cultural Generalities Comparative Mindsets: Society, Self, Values, Epistemic Models, Religion, and World Views Major Components of Chinese Mindsets Attitudes About Police Authority vs. the Community Chinese Shame Culture vs. American Guilt Culture Pragmatic Contextualism Face Guanxi High-Context Asian Cultures vs. Police Low-Context Culture Formal Manners and "Paybacks" are Important Business Contracts, Time, and Negotiations Suggested Readings: Asian Crime and Cross-Cultural Studies Ethnic Profile: The Chinese Introduction to the Scope of Chinese Crime On Introducing and Summarizing Chinese Cultures Potential Chinese Global Economic Power A Geographical Sketch of China Cultural Sketches Five Deep Cultural Mindsets "Face" (Mian Zi) and Losing "Face" (Diu Lian) Self and Its Status Collectivism vs. Individualism vs. Chinese Group Orientation Guanxi (Networking): A Key to Chinese Society Pride in the Ultimate Superiority of Being Chinese Is Reading Chinese Ethnic Strategists Relevant for Police? Chinese Language, Names, and Holidays The Chinese Language Chinese Names Chinese Holidays and Festivals Suggested Readings Ethnic Profile: The Vietnamese An Introduction to the Scope of Vietnamese Crime A Geographical and Historical Sketch Cultural Sketches Two Deeper Cultural Mindsets: Village Mentality and Time Names, Language, and Scripts Holidays and Calendars Marian Days: Carthage, Missouri Suggested Readings Asian Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism A Brief Comparative Introduction Chinese Confucianism Taoism (Daoism): The Internal Chinese Counterbalance Buddhism Buddhist Contextual Pragmatism and Truth RECORDING, PRESERVING, TRAINING, AND PLANNING Standard Telegraphic Code (STC) What is STC? Why Should STC Be Used? A Hong Kong Example Translation vs. Transliteration The Importance of the World Order of Chinese Names Common Surnames, Personal Names, and Brother Names An Example from the STC Code Book The Problem of Nicknames and Suffixes Asian Police Transliterations/Romanizations The Absence of Materials and Training Sources Reference Materials Preserving the Cross-Cultural Skills Police Already Possess The Unnoticed Pressures on Asian-American Officers Supplementing the Planning of Criminal Justice and In-Service Training Programs A Criminal Justice Prejudice? Cross-Cultural Studies Belong to Social Science Community Policing and Cross-Cultural Training Programs Afterword Appendix A: Chinese Triads, Triad Organizations, and Triad Relationships, Prepared by George F. Harkin, Senior Federal Intelligence Analyst Appendix B: Common Chinese Surnames and Notes on Chinese Language and Dialects, Prepared by Robert M. Hearn, Senior Federal Intelligence Analyst Appendix C: Guanxi: An Important Concept for the Law Enforcement Office, Prepared by M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury Appendix D: Overcoming Language and Cultural Barriers in Dealing with Asian Organized Crime, Prepared by M. Cordell Hart, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, Department of Treasury Appendix E: Chinese Culture and the Practice of Actuarial Intelligence, Prepared by Paul Moore, Senior Intelligence Analyst, Federal Bureau of Investigation Glossary Endnotes Index
A law enforcement sourcebook of Asian crime and cultures : tactics and mindsets