Plantation silviculture

by Kenneth R. Shepherd


  • 1 Introduction.- Nature of Plantations.- Plantations Defined.- Monoculture Tree Crops.- Plantations and Long Term Productivity.- Plantations, Economics and Land Use.- Costs and Benefits.- Land as a Resource.- Plantations and Development.- Silviculture as Both Art and Science.- Silvicultural Systems.- 2 Seed Production.- The Need for Good Quality Seed.- The Reproductive Cycle in Forest Trees.- Development of Gymnosperm Seeds.- Development of Angiosperm Seeds.- Factors Influencing Flowering and Seed Production.- Seed Production from the Natural Forest or from Plantation.- Seed Orchards.- Siting of Seed Orchards.- Orchard Establishment.- Orchard Management.- 3 Seed Handling.- Trade in Seed.- Seed Collection.- Pre-collection Planning.- Field Collection Methods.- Precautions at Harvest to Minimise Disease Infection.- Labelling the Crop.- Seed Extraction.- Drying and Storage of Seed.- Seed Quality.- Moisture Content.- Seed Storage.- Seed Testing.- Sampling the Seedlot.- Physical Characteristics of the Seed Sample.- Weight.- Moisture content.- Genuiness and origin.- Seed Germination Tests.- Seed Dormancy and Pre-Sowing Treatment.- Immaturity of the embryo.- Complete inhibition of water absorption.- A state of dormancy in the embryo itself.- Secondary dormancy.- 4 Nursery Practice.- Seedlings for Planting.- The Nursery Site.- Selection of a Nursery site.- Layout of the Nursery.- Bare-Root Seedling Production.- The Nursery Soil.- Texture.- Structure.- Nutrients.- Organic matter.- Soil reaction, or pH.- Mycorrhiza.- Soil Management.- Tillage.- Fertiliser use.- Maintaining soil organic matter.- Adjusting soil pH.- Pest and disease control.- Irrigation.- Seedbed preparation, Sowing and Maintenance.- Sowing.- Weed control.- Pre-emergence weed control.- Post-emergence control.- Interrow Cultivation.- Root Pruning and Root Wrenching.- Nutrient Deficiency in the Seedbed.- Nitrogen.- Phosphorus.- Potassium.- Magnesium.- Lifting, Packing and Transport of Bare-root Stock.- Lifting.- Packing.- Transport.- Production of Container Stock.- Choice of Container.- Cost of the container.- Weight when filled with a growing medium.- Durability.- Effects on the root system.- Choice of Growing Medium.- Fumigation and Sterilization of Potting Mixtures.- Sowing Seed or Pricking out into Containers.- Shading.- Low shade.- High shade.- Disease Control.- Watering.- Hardening-off.- Handling and Transport.- Asexual or Vegetative Propagation.- Propagation by Cuttings.- Grafting and Budding.- Tissue Culture.- Planting Stock Quality.- Nursery Records.- 5 Plantations and Land-Use.- Plantations and Conservation.- Site Evaluation.- Climate.- Soil and Terrain.- Market and Economic Considerations.- Existing and potential markets.- Availability of infrastructure.- Labour supply.- Scale of operations.- Environmental Impacts of Plantation Establishment.- Hazards of fire, wind, erosion and landslide.- Hazards of a biological nature.- Conservation of native plants and animals.- Problems of stream sedimentation and loss of water quality.- Soil compaction and loss of fertility.- Adverse impacts on landscape values.- Adverse impacts on recreational values.- Site Quality.- Plantation Design.- Plantations and Landscape.- Planning the Access System.- Stage construction.- Classification of plantation roads.- Roading density.- Compartment shape.- Non-wood Production Plantations.- Windbreaks and shelterbelts.- Urban forestry.- Farm forestry and agroforestry.- 6 Growth of Even-Aged Crops.- Tree Stands, and Monocultures.- Growth of Single Stems.- Height Growth.- Free or indeterminate growth.- Fixed or determinate growth.- Diameter Growth.- Root Growth.- Tree Form and the Influence of the Tree Crown.- Growth of the Forest Stand.- Competition, Tolerance, Dominance and Crown Class.- Competition.- Tolerance.- Dominance and crown class.- Height Growth.- Diameter Growth.- Root Growth.- Stand Growth and Stocking Density.- Biomass Production.- 7 Planting, Site Preparation and Maintenance.- Silvicultural Decisions.- Site Preparation Methods.- Clearing the Land.- Broadcast felling and burning.- Felling, windrow clearing and burning.- Drainage and Mounding.- Drainage.- Mounding.- Deep Ripping the Planting Site.- Ploughing and Screefing.- Weed Control on the planting Line.- Fertilizing at Planting.- Benefits of adding fertilizers.- Forms of fertilizer used at planting.- Economics of fertilizer use at planting.- Legumes as a source of nitrogen.- Maintaining Site Productivity.- Loss of Nutrients.- Direct loss of nutrients in harvested biomass.- Indirect loss of nutrients from the site.- Water Relations and Second Rotation Sites.- Improving the water holding capacity of the soil.- Increasing tree crop water usage.- Soil Compaction.- Managing the Nitrogen Supply.- 8 Planting and Early Maintenance.- Choice of Species.- Purpose of the Plantation.- Plantings primarily for wood production.- Plantations for protection.- Plantations for fuelwood and fodder.- Amenity and urban planting.- Site and Climate.- Use of Indigenous Species.- Use of Exotic Species.- Choice of Espacement.- Espacement, Tree and Stand Growth.- Mortality.- Height.- Diameter growth.- Stem form.- Branch size.- Volume production.- Wood quality.- Effects of Initial Espacement on Costs.- Planting.- Timing of Planting Operations.- Special Forms of Planting.- Agro-forestry.- Taungya, or trees with food crops.- Line planting, or line enrichment planting.- Urban plantings.- Planting Methods.- Protection and Early Maintenance.- Protection from Vermin.- Watering and Water Conservation.- Minimising Competition from other Vegetation.- Applicatiion of Fertilizer.- 9 Pruning.- Reasons for Pruning.- Natural Pruning.- Artificial Pruning.- Methods of Pruning.- Axe pruning.- Saw pruning.- Shear pruning.- High pruning.- Mechanical pruning.- Timing and Intensity of Pruning.- Pruning and Wood Quality.- 10 Thinning.- Thinning and Growth of Stands.- Objectives of Thinning.- National or Organisational Objectives.- Financial Considerations.- Integration of Forest and Industry.- Biological Considerations.- Thinning Methods.- Commencement of Thinning.- Type of Thinning.- Low thinning.- Crown thinning.- Selection thinning or thinning from above.- Mechanical thinning.- Free thinning.- Thinning Interval.- Thinning Intensity.- Severity of Thinning.- Thinning, Harvesting and the Environment.- Wind Stability and Thinning.- Thinning and Wood Quality.- 11 Silvicultural Management.- Tactics and Strategies in Silviculture.- A Silvicultural Regime.- Shorthand Notation for a Silvicultural Regime.- Factors Influencing a Choice of Regime.- Silvicultural Prescriptions.- Use of Systems Analysis to Determine Regimes.- Recognition.- Definitiion of the extent of the problem and its boundaries.- Identifying the hierarchy of goals and objectives.- Generation of solutions.- Modelling.- Evaluation of potential courses of action.- Implementation of the results.- Models for Evaluating Silvicultural Alternatives.- The Data Base.- Data for building a model.- Data for using a model.- Yield Simulation Models.- Economic Analysis of the Results of Simulation.- Present net value.- Internal rate of return.- Benefit cost ratio.- Seeking Optimum Management Strategies.- Silvicultural Regimes to Suit Different Management Objectives.- Maximum Production Regimes.- With a small wood market.- With no small wood market.- Maximum Value Regime.- An Agro-forestry Regime.- A Regime for Windy Climates.- Plantations and the Future.- References.

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書名 Plantation silviculture
著作者等 Shepherd, K. R.
Shepherd K.R.
シリーズ名 Forestry sciences
出版元 M. Nijhoff
刊行年月 1986
ページ数 xiii, 322 p.
大きさ 25 cm
ISBN 9024733790
NCID BA01115635
※クリックでCiNii Booksを表示
言語 英語
出版国 イギリス