Penny J. Gullan and Peter S. Cranston ; with illustrations by Karina H. McInnes
This established, popular textbook provides a stimulating and comprehensive introduction to the insects, the animals that represent over half of the planet's biological diversity. In this new fourth edition, the authors introduce the key features of insect structure, function, behavior, ecology and classification, placed within the latest ideas on insect evolution. Much of the book is organised around major biological themes - living on the ground, in water, on plants, in colonies, and as predators, parasites/parasitoids and prey. A strong evolutionary theme is maintained throughout. The ever-growing economic importance of insects is emphasized in new boxes on insect pests, and in chapters on medical and veterinary entomology, and pest management. Updated 'taxoboxes' provide concise information on all aspects of each of the 27 major groupings (orders) of insects.
Key Features:* All chapters thoroughly updated with the latest results from international studies* Accompanying website with downloadable illustrations and links to video clips* All chapters to include new text boxes of topical issues and studies* Major revision of systematic and taxonomy chapter* Still beautifully illustrated with more new illustrations from the artist, Karina McInnes A companion resources site is available at www.wiley.com/go/gullan/insects. This site includes:* Copies of the figures from the book for downloading, along with a PDF of the captions.* Colour versions of key figures from the book* A list of useful web links for each chapter, selected by the author.
List of boxes. Preface to the fourth edition. Preface to the third edition. Preface to the second edition. Preface and acknowledgments for first edition. 1 THE IMPORTANCE, DIVERSITY, AND CONSERVATION OF INSECTS. 1.1 What is entomology? 1.2 The importance of insects. 1.3 Insect biodiversity. 1.4 Naming and classification of insects. 1.5 Insects in popular culture and commerce. 1.6 Insects as food. 1.7 Culturing insects. 1.8 Insect conservation. Further reading. 2 EXTERNAL ANATOMY. 2.1 The cuticle. 2.2 Segmentation and tagmosis. 2.3 The head. 2.4 The thorax. 2.5 The abdomen. Further reading. 3 INTERNAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY. 3.1 Muscles and locomotion. 3.2 The nervous system and co-ordination. 3.3 The endocrine system and the function of hormones. 3.4 The circulatory system. 3.5 The tracheal system and gas exchange. 3.6 The gut, digestion, and nutrition. 3.7 The excretory system and waste disposal. 3.8 Reproductive organs. Further reading. 4 SENSORY SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIOR. 4.1 Mechanical stimuli. 4.2 Thermal stimuli, 101 4.3 Chemical stimuli. 4.4 Insect vision. 4.5 Insect behavior. Further reading. 5 REPRODUCTION. 5.1 Bringing the sexes together. 5.2 Courtship. 5.3 Sexual selection. 5.4 Copulation. 5.5 Diversity in genitalic morphology. 5.6 Sperm storage, fertilization, and sex determination. 5.7 Sperm competition. 5.8 Oviparity (egg-laying). 5.9 Ovoviviparity and viviparity. 5.10 Atypical modes of reproduction. 5.11 Physiological control of reproduction. Further reading. 6 INSECT DEVELOPMENT AND LIFE HISTORIES. 6.1 Growth. 6.2 Life-history patterns and phases. 6.3 Process and control of molting. 6.4 Voltinism. 6.5 Diapause. 6.6 Dealing with environmental extremes. 6.7 Migration. 6.8 Polymorphism and polyphenism. 6.9 Age-grading. 6.10 Environmental effects on development. 6.11 Climate and insect distributions. Further reading. 7 INSECT SYSTEMATICS: PHYLOGENY AND CLASSIFICATION. 7.1 Systematics. 7.2 The extant Hexapoda. 7.3 Class Entognatha: Protura (proturans), Collembola (springtails), and Diplura (diplurans). 7.4 Class Insecta (true insects). Further reading. 8 INSECT BIOGEOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTION. 8.1 Insect biogeography. 8.2 The antiquity of insects. 8.3 Were the first insects aquatic or terrestrial? 8.4 Evolution of wings. 8.5 Evolution of metamorphosis. 8.6 Insect diversification. 8.7 Insect evolution in the Pacific. Further reading. 9 GROUND-DWELLING INSECTS. 9.1 Insects of litter and soil. 9.2 Insects and dead trees or decaying wood. 9.3 Insects and dung. 9.4 Insect-carrion interactions. 9.5 Insect-fungal interactions. 9.6 Cavernicolous insects. 9.7 Environmental monitoring using ground-dwelling hexapods. Further reading. 10 AQUATIC INSECTS. 10.1 Taxonomic distribution and terminology. 10.2 The evolution of aquatic lifestyles. 10.3 Aquatic insects and their oxygen supplies. 10.4 The aquatic environment. 10.5 Environmental monitoring using aquatic insects. 10.6 Functional feeding groups. 10.7 Insects of temporary waterbodies. 10.8 Insects of the marine, intertidal, and littoral zones. Further reading. 11 INSECTS AND PLANTS. 11.1 Coevolutionary interactions between insects and plants. 11.2 Phytophagy (or herbivory). 11.3 Insects and plant reproductive biology. 11.4 Insects that live mutualistically in specialized plant structures. Further reading. 12 INSECT SOCIETIES. 12.1 Subsociality in insects. 12.2 Eusociality in insects. 12.3 Inquilines and parasites of social insects. 12.4 Evolution and maintenance of eusociality. 12.5 Success of eusocial insects. Further reading. 13 INSECT PREDATION AND PARASITISM. 13.1 Prey/host location. 13.2 Prey/host acceptance and manipulation. 13.3 Prey/host selection and specificity. 13.4 Population biology: predator/parasitoid and prey/host abundance. 13.5 The evolutionary success of insect predation and parasitism. Further reading. 14 INSECT DEFENSE. 14.1 Defense by hiding. 14.2 Secondary lines of defense. 14.3 Mechanical defenses. 14.4 Chemical defenses. 14.5 Defense by mimicry. 14.6 Collective defenses in gregarious and social insects. Further reading. 15 MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY. 15.1 Insect nuisance and phobia. 15.2 Venoms and allergens. 15.3 Insects as causes and vectors of disease. 15.4 Generalized disease cycles. 15.5 Pathogens. 15.6 Forensic entomology. Further reading. 16 PEST MANAGEMENT. 16.1 Insects as pests. 16.2 The effects of insecticides. 16.3 Integrated pest management. 16.4 Chemical control. 16.5 Biological control. 16.6 Host-plant resistance to insects. 16.7 Physical control. 16.8 Cultural control. 16.9 Pheromones and other insect attractants. 16.10 Genetic manipulation of insect pests. Further reading. 17 METHODS IN ENTOMOLOGY: COLLECTING, PRESERVATION, CURATION, AND IDENTIFICATION. 17.1 Collection. 17.2 Preservation and curation. 17.3 Identification. Further reading. TAXOBOXES. 1 Entognatha: non-insect hexapods (Collembola, Diplura, and Protura). 2 Archaeognatha (or Microcoryphia
embiopterans or webspinners). 9 Zoraptera (zorapterans). 10 Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, and crickets). 11 Phasmatodea (phasmids, stick-insects or walking sticks). 12 Grylloblattodea (Grylloblattaria or Notoptera
grylloblattids, or ice or rock crawlers). 13 Mantophasmatodea (heelwalkers). 14 Mantodea (mantids, mantises, or praying mantids). 15 Blattodea: roach families (cockroaches or roaches). 16 Blattodea: epifamily Termitoidae (former order Isoptera
termites). 17 Psocodea: "Psocoptera" (bark lice and book lice). 18 Psocodea: "Phthiraptera" (chewing lice and sucking lice). 19 Thysanoptera (thrips). 20 Hemiptera (bugs, cicadas, leafhoppers, planthoppers, spittle bugs, treehoppers, aphids, jumping plant lice, scale insects, and whiteflies). 21 Neuropterida: Neuroptera (lacewings, owlflies, and antlions), Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, and fishflies) and Raphidioptera (snakeflies). 22 Coleoptera (beetles). 23 Strepsiptera (strepsipterans). 24 Diptera (flies). 25 Mecoptera (hangingflies, scorpionflies, and snowfleas). 26 Siphonaptera (fleas). 27 Trichoptera (caddisflies). 28 Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). 29 Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps, sawflies, and wood wasps). Glossary. References. Index. Appendix: A reference guide to orders. Companion website www.wiley.com/go/gullan/insects