This volume explains the microscopic physics operating in stars in advanced stages of their evolution and describes with many numerical examples and illustrations how they respond to this microphysics. Models of low and intermediate mass are evolved through the core helium-burning phase, the asymptotic giant branch phase (alternating shell hydrogen and helium burning) and through the final cooling white dwarf phase. A massive model is carried from the core helium-burning phase through core and shell carbon-burning phases. Gravothermal responses to nuclear reaction-induced transformations and energy loss from the surface are described in detail. Written for senior graduate students and researchers who have mastered the principles of stellar evolution, as developed in the first volume of Stellar Evolution Physics, sufficient attention is paid to how numerical solutions are obtained to enable the reader to engage in model construction on a professional level.