Our knowledge of Mars has changed dramatically in the past 40 years due to the wealth of information provided by Earth-based and orbiting telescopes, and spacecraft investigations. Recent observations suggest that water has played a major role in the climatic and geologic history of the planet. This textbook, first published in 2008, covers our understanding of the planet's formation, geology, atmosphere, interior, surface properties, and potential for life. This interdisciplinary textbook encompasses the fields of geology, chemistry, atmospheric sciences, geophysics, and astronomy. Each chapter introduces the necessary background information to help the non-specialist understand the topics explored. It includes results from missions through 2006, including the latest insights from Mars Express and the Mars Exploration Rovers. Containing the most up-to-date information on Mars, this textbook is essential reading for graduate courses, and an important reference for researchers.