This is the fifth volume in the Oxford Regional Environments series. The series is devoted to major regions of the world, each presenting a detailed and up-to-date body of scientific knowledge concerning a particular region. Fennoscandia is composed of Finland ('Fennia' in Latin) and the Scandinavian peninsula (Norway and Sweden). A team of experts presents the physical geographical factors which affect and control life in this northern area. The contributors concentrate on topics which are characteristic of the region, scientifically sound, and not necessarily familiar to an international audience, such as land uplift, large drumlin fields and eskers, mires, snow, the timberline, fjords, archipelagos, lakes, scattered frost features, and the biodiversity of conservation.