The book describes the rise of science (and technology) in the Islamic Golden Age, examines the causes that led to its decline, reviews failed later attempts for its revival and finally discusses social and religious reformation needed for it to flourish in contemporary Muslim societies. Social reformation covers rule of law, democratic infra-structure and human-rights, while religious reformation involves the reinterpretation of scripture. It is argued that without such a social and religious reformation, Muslims (a quarter of the earth's population) will be less able to participate in the science-driven 21st century world. Note that Muslim leaders in the UK and elsewhere are not addressing the need of such an essential reformation, without which, Muslims as a people will remain in a limbo and thus continue to be vulnerable to extremist ideas. Therefore this book should be a must for all those interested in the creation of a harmonious one-world. Look at www.scienceunderislam for more information.