The Physiological Mechanisms of Motivation

Edited by Pfaff, D. W.


  • One: Concepts.- 1 Motivational Concepts: Definitions and Distinctions.- Motivation: A Brief Review of Concepts.- Drive.- Reinforcement, Reward.- Incentive.- Arousal.- Emotion.- Motivation Is a Unitary Behavioral Concept with Multiple Neurophysiological Mechanisms.- References.- 2 Instinct and Motivation as Explanations for Complex Behavior.- Some Key Terms Defined.- Instinct and Motivation Compared.- A Summary of the Comparison: Its Virtues and Faults.- Choosing Animals for the Study of Motivation.- References.- Two: Hunger and Thirst.- 3 Taste: A Model of Incentive Motivation.- Taste Hedonics and Behavior.- Correlating Taste Physiology and Behavior.- The CNS and Taste-Motivated Behavior.- Reference Notes.- References.- 4 Brain-Stem Control of Ingestive Behavior.- Ingestive Behavior.- The Ingestion Sequence.- The Rejection Response.- Chronic Decerebrate and Thalamic Rats.- Control of Ingestive Behavior in the Chronically Decerebrate Rat.- Constructing Hunger in the Brain.- Reference Notes.- References.- 5 Satiety and the Problem of Motivation.- Motivation and Feeding Behavior.- Satiety.- The Neglect of Satiety.- The Structure of Satiety.- Summary and Speculation.- References.- 6 Physiological and Behavioral Basis of Human Obesity.- Definitions.- Obesity as a Disorder of Weight Regulation.- Set Point Theory.- Growth and Development of Adipose Tissue.- Brown Adipose Tissue.- Epidemiological Studies: Prevalence and Dietary Preference.- Externality Theory.- Conditioned Responses: Hunger and Satiety.- Dietary-Induced Obesity.- Summary.- References.- 7 The Physiology of Thirst.- Cellular Dehydration and Brain Osmosensors for Thirst.- Hypovolemia and the Neuroendocrine Mechanism of Thirst.- Controversial Issues in Research on Angiotensin-Induced Thirst.- Satiety Systems for Thirst.- The Neuropharmacology of Thirst.- Convergence of Systems Arousing Thirst.- Issues That Await Neurological Explanation.- References.- Three: Thermal, Maternal, and Sexual Motivation.- 8 Are There Similarities Between Thermoregulation and Sexual Behavior?.- Neural Organization of Thermoregulation.- Evolution of Thermoregulation.- Applications of the Model.- Similarities Between Thermal and Sexual Behaviors.- References.- 9 Hormonal and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Maternal Behavior in the Rat.- Is Maternal Behavior Motivated?.- Hormonal Mechanisms.- The Onset-Maintenance Dichotomy.- Sensory and Neural Mechanisms.- Interaction with Other Motivated Behaviors.- References.- 10 Neurobiological Mechanisms of Sexual Motivation.- The Female.- The Male.- References.- Four: Approach vs. Avoidance in Motivation and Emotion.- 11 The Opponent Processes in Acquired Motivation.- Repeated Stimulations (Use).- Interstimulus Interval (Disuse).- Quality of Reinforcement.- References.- 12 Brain-Stimulated Reward and Control of Autonomic Function: Are They Related?.- Intracranial Self-Stimulation.- Hypothalamic Control of Behavior.- Correlation of Autonomic Control with Intracranial Self-Stimulation.- References.- 13 Brain Mechanisms in Hedonic Processes.- Thermoregulatory Processes.- Hedonic Processes in Taste and Hunger.- Drive and Reward Processes.- Drive and Reward in Food Motivation.- Discussion.- References.- 14 Motivation and Psychological Stress.- Motivation, Learning, and Performance.- Motivation in Conflict Behavior.- Design for Testing the Utility of an Intervening Variable.- Osmolarity Is Not Enough.- Some General Effects of Psychological Stress.- Effects of Discrimination and Coping on Stomach Lesions and Other Physical Consequences of Chronic Fear.- Possible Shortcomings of Simple Formulation in Terms of Fear.- Are There Qualitatively Different Types of Stress?.- Two Responses to Fear.- Additional Cardiovascular Consequences of Fear.- Immune Responses.- Neurohumoral Mechanisms.- Questions About Aversive Motivation and Stress.- Joyful Levels of Arousal.- References.- 15 A Physiological and Psychological Analysis of Pain: A Potential Model of Motivation.- A Short Historical Perspective.- Psychophysical and Psychological Aspects of Pain.- The Sensory Aspects of Pain.- Arousal.- A Strategy for Studying Neural Mechanisms of Pain.- Primary Cutaneous Afferents.- Classes of Spinothalamic Nociceptive Neurons.- The Function of Second-Order Nociceptive Neurons in Awake Primates.- Brain Processing of Nociceptive Information.- Centrifugal Control of Pain Transmission.- Plasticity in Analgesia Systems.- Pain as a Model for Motivational Systems.- References.

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書名 The Physiological Mechanisms of Motivation
著作者等 Pfaff, D. W.
出版元 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
刊行年月 2012.01.24
版表示 Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
ページ数 500 ppp
大きさ H235 x W155
ISBN 9781461256946
言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国