By (author) Pentecost, Allan

This is the first book entirely devoted to travertine, a material in use for over 4000 years. The single-author work is a valuable reference source for travertine, covering all aspects of travertine origins, formation, composition, flora and fauna, occurrence and utilisation, as well as covering allied continental carbonates such as lake marls, calcretes and beachrocks. Travertine, some forms of which are often known as 'tufa', is of particular significance as a source of environmental information (fossils and isotope geochemistry), often permitting the reconstruction of past environments. Reviews of dating techniques, classification and geomorphology are included and the author attempts to provide an unbiased but critical appraisal of current models of travertine formation. Currently, travertine is in great demand as a building and ornamental stone. It has also been exploited in unconventional ways, such as 'petrifying springs' and by way of unusual and little known artistic techniques. Scaling of pipes and boilers is often the result of processes allied to travertine formation. The phenomenon is described parallel to methods of scale elimination and compared with natural processes where travertine formation is inhibited. Travertine sites are of special scientific interest, with their rich and often unique floras and faunas displaying their unique biodiversity, and their unusual and often fragile biota. Conservation issues are discussed, together with the description of travertine fossils and occurrences throughout the geological record. The content will be of interest to carbonate sedimentologists, hydrobiologists, palaeoclimatologists, physical geographers, water treatment engineers, astrobiologists, architects, and sculptors.

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  • 1. Introduction 1.1 Definitions 1.2 Travertine compared with other non-marine carbonates 1.3 Etymology 1.4 History of the science of travertine formation 2. Classification And Origins 2.1 Travertine precipitation 2.2 Classification on carrier CO2 2.2.1 Meteogene travertines 2.2.2 Thermogene travertines Magmatic generation of carrier Decarbonation CO2 from of heated organic matter 2.2.3 'Orgamox' waters and other CO2 sources 2.3 Other classifications 2.4 Sources of bedrock carbonate and calcium 3. Travertine Fabric 3.1 The microfabric 3.1.1 Calcite fabrics
  • micrite and sparit 3.1.2 Calcite fabrics: dendritic and similar forms 3.1.3 Calcite fabrics: shrubs and bushes 3.1.4 Aragonite fabrics 3.2 Mesofabrics 3.2.1 Porosity 3.2.2 Bedding and jointing 3.2.3 Floe, nodules and thinolite 3.2.4 Biofabrics 3.2.5 Coated grains: ooids and oncoids Ooids Oncoids Fluvial oncoids Lacustrine oncoids 3.2.6 Lamination Banding within a fabric Alternation of fabrics Stromatolites 3.3 Diagenesis 3.3.1 Primary fabric and cement 3.3.2 Meteoric diagenesis Percolation of stream and groundwater Dissolution of carbonate Recrystallisation of calcite Recrystallisation of aragonite Sparmicritisation 3.3.3 Burial diagenesis 4. Morphology And Facies 4.1 Authochthonous travertines 4.1.1 Spring mounds 4.1.2 Fissure ridges 4.1.3 Cascades 4.1.4 Dams Minidams Macrodams 4.1.5 Fluvial crusts 4.1.6 Lake deposits Lacustrine crusts Reefs 4.1.7 Paludal deposits 4.1.8 Cemented rudites and clasts 4.1.9 Speleothems 4.2 Allochthonous (clastic) travertines 4.3 Travertine caves 4.4Post-depositional effects on morphology 4.4.1 Karstification 4.4.2 Soils 4.4.3 Mass movement 4.4.4 Effects on fluvial systems 5. Limestone Solution, Groundwater And Spring Emergence 5.1 Limestone solution and groundwater 5.1.1 Meteogene source waters 5.1.2 Thermogene and superambient meteogene source waters 5.2 Spring emergence - structural controls 6. Chemical Composition Of Travertine-Depositing Source Waters 6.1 Meteogene source waters 6.1.1 The CO2-Ca-H system 6.1.2 Mg, Na, SO4 and Cl 6.1.3 Calcium hydroxide source waters (invasive meteogenes) 6.1.4 Superambient meteogene source waters 6.1.5 'Orgamox' waters 6.2 Thermogene waters 6.2.1 The CO2-Ca-H system 6.2.2 Mg, Na, SO4 and Cl 6.3 Minor components of source waters 6.3 Saline waters 7. Mineralogy And Elemental Composition 7.1 Calcite and aragonite mineralogy 7.2 Occurrence of calcite and aragonite in travertine 7.3 Autochthonous carbonate minerals excluding CaCO3 7.4 Calcite and aragonite crystal habit 7.4.1 Calcite 7.4.2 Aragonite and vaterite 7.5 The calcium carbonate content of travertine 7.6 Trace constituents of calcite and aragonite 7.6.1 Strontium 7.6.2 Magnesium 7.6.3 The alkali metals 7.6.4 Iron and manganese 7.6.5 Phosphorus 7.6.6 Other elements 7.7 Autochthonous non-carbonate minerals 7.7.1 Gypsum 7.7.2 Barytes 7.7.3 Mn and Fe minerals 7.7.4 Sulphur 7.7.5 Silica 7.7.6 Other minerals 7.8 Allochthonous components 7.9 Fluid inclusions 7.10 Organic matter content 7.11 Fluorescence and phosphorescence 8. Stable Isotopes Of Travertine And The Associated Waters 8.1 Oxygen 8.1.1 The hydrological cycle 8.1.2 Oxygen isotopes in carbonates 8.1.3 Oxygen isotopes in travertine 8.1.4 Oxygen isotope equilibrium Kinetic disequilibrium caused by CO2

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書名 Travertine
著作者等 Pentecost, Allan
出版元 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
刊行年月 2005.07.22
ページ数 460p
大きさ H235 x W155
ISBN 9781402035234
言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国