Stanford J. Shaw, Ezel Kural Shaw
Reform, Revolution and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808-1975 is the second book of the two-volume History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. It discusses the modernization of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the spread of nationalism among its subject peoples, and the revolutionary changes in Ottoman institutions and society that led to the Empire's demise and the rise of the democratic Republic of Turkey. Based on extensive research in the Ottoman archives as well as Western sources, this volume analyzes the external pressures, reform measures, institutional changes, and intellectual movements that affected the heterogeneous Ottoman society during the Empire's last century. It concludes with an analysis of contemporary Turkey's constitutional and political structures and principal domestic and foreign problems.