Continuous quantum measurements and path integrals

Michael B. Mensky

Advances in technology are taking the accuracy of macroscopic as well as microscopic measurements close to the quantum limit, for example, in the attempts to detect gravitational waves. Interest in continuous quantum measurements has therefore grown considerably in recent years. Continuous Quantum Measurements and Path Integrals examines these measurements using Feynman path integrals. The path integral theory is developed to provide formulae for concrete physical effects. The main conclusion drawn from the theory is that an uncertainty principle exists for processes, in addition to the familiar one for states. This implies that a continuous measurement has an optimal accuracy-a balance between inefficient error and large quantum fluctuations (quantum noise). A well-known expert in the field, the author concentrates on the physical and conceptual side of the subject rather than the mathematical.

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  • Preface INTRODUCTION TO CONTINUOUS QUANTUM MEASUREMENTS Quantum and Classical Systems Amplitudes and Alternatives Paths and Continuous Measurements The Action Uncertainty Principle INSTANTANEOUS AND SEQUENTIAL MEASUREMENTS Measurement of a Quantum System Quantum Zeno Paradox Approximate and Sequential Measurements TECHNIQUE OF PATH INTEGRALS Propagators and Path Integrals Definition of a Path Integral The Path Integral for an Oscillator Gaussian Path Integrals CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT AND EVOLUTION OF THE MEASURED SYSTEM The Measurement Amplitude Effective Lagrangian Evolution of a Quantum System Subject to Continuous Measurement Scattering by the Measuring Medium CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS OF OSCILLATORS Position Monitoring (Path measurement) Estimation of Force Acting on an Oscillator Spectral Measurements of an Oscillator Evolution of a Harmonic Oscillator Subject to Spectral Measurement Measurement of a Path of a Nonlinear Oscillator CONTINUOUS QUANTUM NONDEMOLITION MEASUREMENTS Quantum Nondemolition Measurements Monitoring of Linear Momentum Velocity versus Momentum QND Measurements of Oscillators MEASUREMENT OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD Exposition of the Method Measurement Amplitude Analysis of the Results Another Definition of the Field Strength Explicit Model of a Meter TIME IN QUANTUM COSMOLOGY Statement of the Problem Measurements in Quantum Cosmology Minisuperspace without Measurement Minisuperspace under Measurement Analysis of the results Concluding Remarks THE ACTION UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE Uncertainties in Continuous Measurements Classical Regime of Measurements Quantum Regime and AUP AUP and Equations of Motion Examples from Quantum Mechanics Quantum Nondemolition Measurements AUP in Quantum Gravity Concluding Remarks GROUP-THEORETICAL STRUCTURE OF QUANTUM CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS Evolution under Measurement Transverse Group for Alternatives Longitudinal Semigroup for Evolution Unification of Transverse and Longitudinal Structures Concluding Remarks PATHS AND MEASUREMENTS: FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Quantum and Classical Features in Continuous Measurement The Two-Slit Experiment Wave-Particle Dualism Conceptual Problems References Index

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書名 Continuous quantum measurements and path integrals
著作者等 Menskii, M. B
Mensky M. B.
出版元 Institute of Physics Publishing
刊行年月 c1993
ページ数 xiii, 188 p.
大きさ 24 cm
ISBN 0750302283
NCID BA19722296
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言語 英語
出版国 イギリス