Ecology and evolution of communities

Martin L. Cody and Jared M. Diamond, editors

In recent times, the science of ecology has been rejuvenated and has moved to a central position in biology. This volume contains eighteen original, major contributions by leaders in the field, all associates of the late Robert MacArthur, whose work has stimulated many of the recent developments in ecology. The intellectual ferment of the field is reflected in these papers, which offer new models for ecological processes, new applications of theoretical and quantitative techniques, and new methods for analyzing and interpreting a wide variety of empirical data. The first five chapters explore the evolution of species abundance and diversity (R. Levins, E. Leigh, J. MacArthur, R. May, and M. Rosenzweig). The theory of loop analysis is newly applied to understanding stability of species communities under both mendelian and group selection. Species abundance relations, population fluctuations, and continental patterns of species diversity are illustrated and interpreted theoretically. The next section examines the competitive strategies of optimal resource allocation variously employed in plant life histories (W. Schaffer and M. Gadgil), bird diets and foraging techniques (H. Hespenheide), butterfly seasonal flights (A. Shapiro), and forest succession examined by the theory of Markov processes (H. Horn). The seven chapters of the third section study the structure of species communities, by comparing different natural communities in similar habitats (M. Cody, J. Karr and F. James, E. Pianka, J. Brown, J. Diamond), or by manipulating field situations experimentally (R. Patrick, J. Connell). The analyses are of communities of species as diverse as freshwater stream organisms, desert lizards and rodents, birds, invertebrates, and plants. These studies yield insights into the assembly of continental and insular communities, convergent evolution of morphology and of ecological structure, and the relative roles of predation, competition, and harsh physical conditions in limiting species ranges. Finally, the two remaining chapters illustrate how ecological advances depend on interaction of theory with field and laboratory observations (G. E. Hutchinson), and how ecological studies such as those of this volume may find practical application to conservation problems posed by man's accelerating modification of the natural world (E. Wilson and E. Willis).

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  • Introduction Martin L. Cody and Jared M. Diamond Bibliography of Robert MacArthur I. The Evolution of Species Abundance and Diversity 1. Evolution in Communities Near Equilibrium Richard Levins 2. Population Fluctuations, Community Stability, and Environmental Variability Egbert G. Leigh, Jr. 3. Environmental Fluctuations and Species Diversity John W. MacArthur 4. Patterns of Species Abundance and Diversity Robert M. May 5. On Continental Steady States of Species Diversity Michael L. Rosenzweig II. Competitive Strategies of Resource Allocation 6. Selection for Optimal Life Histories in Plants William M. Schaffer and Madhav D. Gadgil 7. Prey Characteristics and Predator Niche Width Henry A. Hespenheide 8. The Temporal Component of Butterfly Species Diversity Arthur M. Shapiro 9. Markovian Processes of Forest Succession Henry S. Horn III. Community Structure 10. Towards a Theory of Continental Species Diversities Martin L. Cody 11. Ecomorphological Configurations and Convergent Evolution James R. Karr and Frances C. James 12. Niche Relations of Desert Lizards Eric R. Pianka 13. Geographical Ecology of Desert Rodents James H. Brown 14. Assembly of Species Communities, Jared M. Diamond 15. Structure of Stream Communities Ruth Patrick 16. Some Mechanisms Producing Structure in Natural Communities Joseph H. Connell IV. Outlook 17. Variations on a Theme by Robert MacArthur G. Evelyn Hutchinson 18. Applied Biogeography Edward 0. Wilson and Edwin 0. Willis Index Contributors

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書名 Ecology and evolution of communities
著作者等 Cody, Martin L.
Diamond, Jared M.
Diamond Jared
出版元 Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
刊行年月 1975
ページ数 xii, 545 p.
大きさ 24 cm
ISBN 0674224469
NCID BA03271008
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言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国