Jack S. Blocker, Jr
<p>Jack S. Blocker Jr. traces the Women's Temperance Crusade of 1873-74 from its origins in public lectures by health reformer Dio Lewis through its rapid spread across the nation, to its culmination in the Women's Christian Temperance Union. The non-violent tactics of the Crusaders are described, and their progression from meetings to marches and occasional political campaigning is explored, along with the responses, ranging from active support to violent opposition, that the Crusade evoked. An analysis of causation critically examines previous explanations for the Crusade's timing, location, and composition before concluding that a concurrent rise in alcohol consumption and a decline in liquor-law enforcement produced the movement. A discussion of relations between suffragists and Crusaders helps to clarify the place of the Crusade among nineteenth-century reform movements. The ways in which the movement ended reveal the Crusaders' determination to achieve their goals and the nature of their opposition. Finally, Blocker explores the effects of the Crusade upon male politics and drinking and upon women's organizing as an independent force for reform.