Informal fallacies : towards a theory of argument criticisms  Eur. ~ U.S.

Douglas N. Walton

The basic question of this monograph is: how should we go about judging arguments to be reasonable or unreasonable? Our concern will be with argument in a broad sense, with realistic arguments in natural language. The basic object will be to engage in a normative study of determining what factors, standards, or procedures should be adopted or appealed to in evaluating an argument as "good," "not-so-good," "open to criticism," "fallacious," and so forth. Hence our primary concern will be with the problems of how to criticize an argument, and when a criticism is reasonably justified.

「Nielsen BookData」より

The basic question of this monograph is: how should we go about judging arguments to be reasonable or unreasonable? Our concern will be with argument in a broad sense, with realistic arguments in natural language. The basic object will be to engage in a normative study of determining what factors, standards, or procedures should be adopted or appealed to in evaluating an argument as "good," "not-so-good," "open to criticism," "fallacious," and so forth. Hence our primary concern will be with the problems of how to criticize an argument, and when a criticism is reasonably justified.

「Nielsen BookData」より

[目次]

  • 1. Chapter 1: A New Model of Argument, p1
  • 2. 1. Introduction to the Fallacies, p3
  • 3. 2. Some More Fallacies, p9
  • 4. 3. Fallacies Combined in Realistic Dialogues, p11
  • 5. 4. What is an Argument?, p16
  • 6. 5. Criticism as Challenge and Response, p22
  • 7. 6. Basic Categories of Argument Study, p26
  • 8. Notes: Chapter 1, p31
  • 9. Chapter 2: Hot Rhetoric and Argument, p33
  • 10. 1. Appeals to Popular Sentiment, p33
  • 11. 2. Appeals to Force, p39
  • 12. 3. Appeals to Pity, p42
  • 13. 4. Overly Personal Argumentation, p45
  • 14. 5. The Rhetorical Debate, p48
  • 15. 6. Case Study: Parliamentary Debate, p51
  • 16. 7. Conclusion, p60
  • 17. Notes: Chapter 2, p61
  • 18. Chapter 3: The Logic of Propositions, p63
  • 19. 1. Deductive Validity, p63
  • 20. 2. Formal Logic, p65
  • 21. 3. Classical Propositional Calculus, p68
  • 22. 4. Applying Deductive Logic to Arguments, p73
  • 23. 5. Invalidity and Fallaciousness, p77
  • 24. 6. Relevance and Validity, p79
  • 25. 7. Subject-Matter Relatedness, p82
  • 26. 8. Relatedness Logic, p84
  • 27. 9. Semantics and Pragmatics, p88
  • 28. 10. What is a Fallacy?, p93
  • 29. Notes: Chapter 3, p96
  • 30. Chapter 4: Logical Dialogue-Games, p97
  • 31. 1. Different Approaches to Formal Dialogues, p98
  • 32. 2. The Ad Ignorantiam Fallacy, p105
  • 33. 3. Fallacies of Question-Asking, p108
  • 34. 4. The Fallacy of Many Questions, p110
  • 35. 5. Demanding Direct Answers to Questions, p113
  • 36. 6. Misconception of Refutation, p115
  • 37. 7. Case Studies of Political Debates, p118
  • 38. 8. A Game with Dark-Side Commitments, p125
  • 39. Notes: Chapter 4, p130
  • 40. Chapter 5: Enthymemes, p133
  • 41. 1. The Tradition of Enthymemes, p133
  • 42. 2. The Objectives of Dialogue, p136
  • 43. 3. Veiled Commitment-Sets, p142
  • 44. 4. Strategy and Plausibility, p145
  • 45. 5. The Problem Resolved, p146
  • 46. 6. Order of the Premisses, p150
  • 47. 7. Multiple Premisses in Complex Arguments, p154
  • 48. Notes: Chapter 5, p156
  • 49. Chapter 6: Longer Sequences of Argumentation, p157
  • 50. 1. Sequences of Argumentation, p158
  • 51. 2. Graphs of Arguments, p160
  • 52. 3. Case Study: Argument on Sex Education, p162
  • 53. 4. Case Study: Circular Argumentation, p167
  • 54. 5. Plausibility Conditions on Arguments, p170
  • 55. 6. The Missing Links, p176
  • 56. 7. Conclusions on Circular Arguments, p180
  • 57. Notes: Chapter 6, p183
  • 58. Chapter 7: Fallacious Arguments From Authority, p185
  • 59. 1. How Appeals to Authority Can Go Wrong, p185
  • 60. 2. Plausible Argument, p188
  • 61. 3. Where Experts Disagree, p190
  • 62. 4. Expertise and Legal Dialogue, p192
  • 63. 5. Dialogue and Expertise, p194
  • 64. 6. Conclusions, p199
  • 65. Notes: Chapter 7, p201
  • 66. Chapter 8: Various Fallacies, p203
  • 67. 1. Inductive Fallacies, p203
  • 68. 2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments, p205
  • 69. 3. Post Hoc Arguments, p206
  • 70. 4. Slippery Slope, p209
  • 71. 5. Equivocation, p212
  • 72. 6. Amphiboly, p213
  • 73. 7. Composition and Division, p214
  • 74. Chapter 9: Arguments Against the Person, p217
  • 75. 1. Poisoning the Well, p217
  • 76. 2. The Sportsman's Rejoinder, p222
  • 77. 3. Evaluating Ad Hominem Disputations, p227
  • 78. 4. Four Types of Circumstantial Ad Hominem, p230
  • 79. 5. Rhetorical Context of Ad Hominem Attacks, p233
  • 80. 6. Positional Defensibility, p236
  • 81. 7. Conclusion, p238
  • 82. Notes: Chapter 9, p240
  • 83. Chapter 10: Equivocation, p241
  • 84. 1. What is Equivocation?, p242
  • 85. 2. Vagueness and Criticisms of Equivocality, p245
  • 86. 3. The Problem of Subtle Equivocations, p249
  • 87. 4. Deep Deception and Equivocal Dialogue, p254
  • 88. 5. Many-Valued Logic for Equivocators, p259
  • 89. 6. Priests's System LP, p261
  • 90. 7. Applying LP to the Fallacy of Equivocation, p266
  • 91. 8. R-Mingle as a Logic for Equivocators, p273
  • 92. 9. RM and Equivocation, p276
  • 93. 10. Conclusions, p283
  • 94. Notes: Chapter 10, p287
  • 95. Chapter 11: Informal Logic as a Discipline, p289
  • 96. 1. The Role of Formal Logic, p291
  • 97. 2. Dialectic as a Theory of Argument, p294
  • 98. 3. Function of Why-Questions, p297
  • 99. 4. Subject-Specific Nature of Arguments, p302
  • 100. 5. Case Studies on Circular Reasoning, p305
  • 101. 6. Conversational Pragmatics, p314
  • 102. 7. Pedagogical Directions for Informal Logic, p320
  • 103. Notes: Chapter 11, p322
  • 104. Bibliography, p323
  • 105. Index, p331

「Nielsen BookData」より

[目次]

  • 1. Chapter 1: A New Model of Argument, p1
  • 2. 1. Introduction to the Fallacies, p3
  • 3. 2. Some More Fallacies, p9
  • 4. 3. Fallacies Combined in Realistic Dialogues, p11
  • 5. 4. What is an Argument?, p16
  • 6. 5. Criticism as Challenge and Response, p22
  • 7. 6. Basic Categories of Argument Study, p26
  • 8. Notes: Chapter 1, p31
  • 9. Chapter 2: Hot Rhetoric and Argument, p33
  • 10. 1. Appeals to Popular Sentiment, p33
  • 11. 2. Appeals to Force, p39
  • 12. 3. Appeals to Pity, p42
  • 13. 4. Overly Personal Argumentation, p45
  • 14. 5. The Rhetorical Debate, p48
  • 15. 6. Case Study: Parliamentary Debate, p51
  • 16. 7. Conclusion, p60
  • 17. Notes: Chapter 2, p61
  • 18. Chapter 3: The Logic of Propositions, p63
  • 19. 1. Deductive Validity, p63
  • 20. 2. Formal Logic, p65
  • 21. 3. Classical Propositional Calculus, p68
  • 22. 4. Applying Deductive Logic to Arguments, p73
  • 23. 5. Invalidity and Fallaciousness, p77
  • 24. 6. Relevance and Validity, p79
  • 25. 7. Subject-Matter Relatedness, p82
  • 26. 8. Relatedness Logic, p84
  • 27. 9. Semantics and Pragmatics, p88
  • 28. 10. What is a Fallacy?, p93
  • 29. Notes: Chapter 3, p96
  • 30. Chapter 4: Logical Dialogue-Games, p97
  • 31. 1. Different Approaches to Formal Dialogues, p98
  • 32. 2. The Ad Ignorantiam Fallacy, p105
  • 33. 3. Fallacies of Question-Asking, p108
  • 34. 4. The Fallacy of Many Questions, p110
  • 35. 5. Demanding Direct Answers to Questions, p113
  • 36. 6. Misconception of Refutation, p115
  • 37. 7. Case Studies of Political Debates, p118
  • 38. 8. A Game with Dark-Side Commitments, p125
  • 39. Notes: Chapter 4, p130
  • 40. Chapter 5: Enthymemes, p133
  • 41. 1. The Tradition of Enthymemes, p133
  • 42. 2. The Objectives of Dialogue, p136
  • 43. 3. Veiled Commitment-Sets, p142
  • 44. 4. Strategy and Plausibility, p145
  • 45. 5. The Problem Resolved, p146
  • 46. 6. Order of the Premisses, p150
  • 47. 7. Multiple Premisses in Complex Arguments, p154
  • 48. Notes: Chapter 5, p156
  • 49. Chapter 6: Longer Sequences of Argumentation, p157
  • 50. 1. Sequences of Argumentation, p158
  • 51. 2. Graphs of Arguments, p160
  • 52. 3. Case Study: Argument on Sex Education, p162
  • 53. 4. Case Study: Circular Argumentation, p167
  • 54. 5. Plausibility Conditions on Arguments, p170
  • 55. 6. The Missing Links, p176
  • 56. 7. Conclusions on Circular Arguments, p180
  • 57. Notes: Chapter 6, p183
  • 58. Chapter 7: Fallacious Arguments From Authority, p185
  • 59. 1. How Appeals to Authority Can Go Wrong, p185
  • 60. 2. Plausible Argument, p188
  • 61. 3. Where Experts Disagree, p190
  • 62. 4. Expertise and Legal Dialogue, p192
  • 63. 5. Dialogue and Expertise, p194
  • 64. 6. Conclusions, p199
  • 65. Notes: Chapter 7, p201
  • 66. Chapter 8: Various Fallacies, p203
  • 67. 1. Inductive Fallacies, p203
  • 68. 2. Deductive and Inductive Arguments, p205
  • 69. 3. Post Hoc Arguments, p206
  • 70. 4. Slippery Slope, p209
  • 71. 5. Equivocation, p212
  • 72. 6. Amphiboly, p213
  • 73. 7. Composition and Division, p214
  • 74. Chapter 9: Arguments Against the Person, p217
  • 75. 1. Poisoning the Well, p217
  • 76. 2. The Sportsman's Rejoinder, p222
  • 77. 3. Evaluating Ad Hominem Disputations, p227
  • 78. 4. Four Types of Circumstantial Ad Hominem, p230
  • 79. 5. Rhetorical Context of Ad Hominem Attacks, p233
  • 80. 6. Positional Defensibility, p236
  • 81. 7. Conclusion, p238
  • 82. Notes: Chapter 9, p240
  • 83. Chapter 10: Equivocation, p241
  • 84. 1. What is Equivocation?, p242
  • 85. 2. Vagueness and Criticisms of Equivocality, p245
  • 86. 3. The Problem of Subtle Equivocations, p249
  • 87. 4. Deep Deception and Equivocal Dialogue, p254
  • 88. 5. Many-Valued Logic for Equivocators, p259
  • 89. 6. Priests's System LP, p261
  • 90. 7. Applying LP to the Fallacy of Equivocation, p266
  • 91. 8. R-Mingle as a Logic for Equivocators, p273
  • 92. 9. RM and Equivocation, p276
  • 93. 10. Conclusions, p283
  • 94. Notes: Chapter 10, p287
  • 95. Chapter 11: Informal Logic as a Discipline, p289
  • 96. 1. The Role of Formal Logic, p291
  • 97. 2. Dialectic as a Theory of Argument, p294
  • 98. 3. Function of Why-Questions, p297
  • 99. 4. Subject-Specific Nature of Arguments, p302
  • 100. 5. Case Studies on Circular Reasoning, p305
  • 101. 6. Conversational Pragmatics, p314
  • 102. 7. Pedagogical Directions for Informal Logic, p320
  • 103. Notes: Chapter 11, p322
  • 104. Bibliography, p323
  • 105. Index, p331

「Nielsen BookData」より

この本の情報

書名 Informal fallacies : towards a theory of argument criticisms
著作者等 Walton, Douglas N.
シリーズ名 Pragmatics & beyond companion series
巻冊次 Eur.
U.S.
出版元 J. Benjamins
刊行年月 1987
ページ数 x, 336 p.
大きさ 23 cm
ISBN 1556190107
9027250057
NCID BA01180295
※クリックでCiNii Booksを表示
言語 英語
出版国 オランダ
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