with an English translation by K.J. Maidment and J.O. Burtt
This volume collects the speeches of four orators involved in the ill-fated resistance of Athens to the power of Philip and Alexander the Great of Macedon. Lycurgus of Athens, ca. 396325 BCE, concentrated on domestic affairs, especially financial, which he managed for twelve years, and naval matters. He also constructed and repaired important public buildings. Athens refused to surrender him to Alexander and honoured him until his death. Dinarchus of Corinth, ca. 361291, as resident alien in Athens became a forensic speaker and also assailed Demosthenes and others. He was accused by Alexander's runaway treasurer Harpalus of corruption. Dinarchus favoured oligarchic government under Macedonian control. He prospered under the regency of Demetrius Phalereus (317307), but was exiled after the restoration of democracy, returning ca. 292. Demades of Athens, ca. 380318, was an able seaman, then unscrupulous politician. He favoured Philip, but fought for Athens at Chaeronea (338). Captured there and released by Philip, he helped to make peace, and later influenced Alexander and then Antipater in Athens' favour. But acceptance of bribes and his tortuous policy ruined him and he was executed by Antipater. Hyperides of Athens, ca. 390322, was a forensic and political speaker who was hostile to Philip and led Athens' patriots after 325. For resistance to Antipater he ultimately met death by violence. What survives today of his speeches was discovered in the nineteenth century.
This is the first in a two-volume edition of Greek orators. Antiphon of Athens, born in 480 BCE, spent his prime in the great period of Athens but, disliking democracy, was himself an ardent oligarch who with others set up a violent short-lived oligarchy in 411. The restored democracy executed him for treason. He had been a writer of speeches for other people involved in litigation. Of the fifteen surviving works three concern real murder cases. The others are exercises in speech-craft consisting of three tetralogies, each tetralogy comprising four skeleton speeches: accuser's; defendant's; accuser's reply; defendant's counter-reply. Andocides of Athens, born ca. 440 BCE, disliked the extremes of both democracy and oligarchy. Involved in religious scandal in 415 BCE, he went into exile. After at least two efforts to return, he did so under the amnesty of 403. In 399 he was acquitted on a charge of profaning the Mysteries and in 391 390 took part in an abortive peace embassy to Sparta. Extant speeches are: 'On His Return' (a plea on his second attempt); 'On the Mysteries' (a selfdefence); 'On the Peace with Sparta'. The speech 'Against Alcibiades' (the notorious politician) is suspect.