Molecular cloning of hormone genes

edited by Joel F. Habener


  • 1 Approaches to Gene Cloning.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Construction and Analysis of Recombinant DNA.- 3. Techniques of Identification.- 4. Cloning Techniques.- 5. Hybridization Probes.- References.- 2 Gene Structure and Regulation.- 1. Introduction and Background.- 1.1. Discovery of Endocrine and Neurocrine Secretions.- 1.2. Investigations of Early Evolutionary Origins of Peptides as Hormones and Local Regulatory Peptides.- 1.3. Present Information Based on Molecular and Cellular Biology.- 2. The Structure and Organization of Genes.- 3. Precursors of the Peptide Hormones.- 3.1. Precursor Sequences Signal Intracellular Segregation.- 3.2. Many Peptide Hormone Precursors Are Polyproteins That Encode Multiple Peptides.- 3.3. Coding Sequences of Genes Are Interrupted.- 4. The Generation of Biologic Diversity.- 5. Gene Expression.- 5.1. Regulation of Gene Expression.- 5.2. cis and trans Mechanisms of Gene Regulation.- 6. Tissue-Specific Gene Expression.- 7. Coupling of Effector Action to Cellular Response.- References.- 3 Insulin Genes: Molecular Cloning and Analyses.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Molecular Cloning Strategies.- 3. Structure and Expression of the Insulin Gene.- 4. Polymorphism in the Human Insulin Genes.- 5. Abnormal Human Insulins.- References.- 4 The Glucagon Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Background.- 1.2. Recombinant cDNAs Encoding Preproglucagon.- 2. Cloning and Characterization of Rat Preproglucagon mRNAs and cDNAs.- 2.1. Preproglucagon cDNAs.- 2.2. Hybridization Analysis of Preproglucagon mRNA.- 3. Glucagon Gene Cloning and Structural Analysis.- 3.1. Hybridization Analysis of the Glucagon Chromosomal Gene.- 3.2. Structural Analyses of the Rat Glucagon Gene.- 3.3. Experimental Procedures Used for the Isolation of a Recombinant Bacteriophage Containing the Rat Glucagon Gene.- 3.4. Partial Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of Gene Subclones.- 3.5. Promoter and Transcriptional Initiation Sites of the Rat Glucagon Gene.- 4. Implications Derived From the Structure of the Glucagon Gene.- 4.1. Evolution of the Glucagon Gene.- 4.2 Tissue-Specific Processing of Preproglucagon.- References.- 5 The Somatostatin Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Anglerfish Somatostatins.- 3. Mammalian Somatostatin.- 4. Future Directions.- References.- 6 The Human Growth-Hormone Gene Family.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Map of the GH Locus.- 3. Sequences of the GH Family Members.- References.- 7 Glycoprotein Hormone Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. General Considerations.- 1.2. Structure of Glycoprotein Hormones.- 1.3. Major Questions.- 2. Molecular Cloning of Genes Encoding the Subunits of Glycoprotein Hormones.- 2.1. Molecular Cloning of ?-Subunit cDNAs.- 2.2. Molecular Cloning of the Genes Encoding the ?-Subunit of Glycoprotein Hormones.- 2.3 Molecular Cloning of cDNA Encoding the ?-Subunit of Human CG.- 2.4. Molecular Cloning of the Genes Encoding the Human CG?-LH? Subunits.- 2.5. Molecular Cloning of cDNA Encoding the Rat LH?-Subunit.- 2.6. Molecular Cloning of the Gene Encoding the Rat LH?-Subunit.- 2.7. Molecular Cloning of cDNA Encoding the TSH?-Subunit.- 2.8. Molecular Cloning of the Genes Encoding the TSH?- and FSH? Subunits.- 2.9. Chromosomal Localization of the Subunit Genes of Glycoprotein Hormones.- 3. Expression of the Subunit Genes.- 4. Summary.- References.- 8 Oxytocin and Vasopressin Genes: Expression and Structure.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Elucidation of the Precursor Structures.- 2.1. Cloning Strategy.- 2.2. Structure-Function Relations.- 3. Maturation of the Precursors.- 4. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Genes.- 4.1. Implications of the Gene Structures.- 4.2. Transcriptional Control.- 5. The Vasopressin Gene in Diabetes Insipidus (Brattleboro) Rats.- 5.1. Gene Sequence and the Predicted Vasopressin Precursor.- 5.2. Transcription and Translation.- 6. Expression of the Oxytocin Gene in Peripheral Organs.- 7. Polyprotein Structures and Their Implications.- References.- 9 The Proopiomelanocortin Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cloning of POMC Complementary DNA.- 3. POMC Gene Structure.- 4. Applications of Recombinant-DNA Probes to the Study of POMC Gene Expression.- 5. Summary.- References.- 10 Enkephalin Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Nature of the Peptides.- 1.2. Physiologic Importance.- 1.3. Rationale for Analyzing the Genes.- 1.4. Screening Approaches.- 2. mRNA Characterization and Gene Structure.- 2.1. Characterization of Proenkephalin and Prodynorphin mRNAs.- 2.2. Molecular Cloning of Bovine and Human Proenkephalin mRNAs.- 2.3. Isolation of the Human Proenkephalin Gene.- 2.4. Isolation and Characterization of the Rat Proenkephalin mRNA and Gene.- 2.5. Isolation of the Toad Proenkephalin Gene.- 2.6. Molecular Cloning of Porcine and Human Prodynorphin mRNAs.- 2.7. Isolation of the Human Prodynorphin Gene.- 2.8. Isolation of the Rat Prodynorphin Gene.- 2.9. Summary of Structural and Evolutionary Considerations.- References.- 11 Calcitonin and Calcitonin-Related Peptide Genes: Tissue-Specific RNA Processing.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Calcitonin Gene Expression.- 2.1. Structure of the RNA Products of Calcitonin Gene Expression.- 2.2. Identification of a Second Mature Transcript of the Calcitonin Gene.- 2.3. Calcitonin Gene Expression in the Brain.- 2.4. Identification of a Second CGRP-Related mRNA.- 2.5. Similar RNA-Processing Events Operate in Human Calcitonin Gene Expression.- 3. Mechanisms of Tissue-Specific RNA-Processing Events.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 12 Parathyroid Hormone Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Isolation of PTH Genes.- 3. Gene Number, Location, and Polymorphisms.- 4. Structure of Mammalian PTH Genes.- 4.1. Introns.- 4.2. Promoter Sequences.- 4.3. Exons.- 5. Conclusion.- References.- 13 The Renin Gene.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Renin-Angiotensin System-Its Importance in the Regulation of Blood Pressure.- 3. Renin: A Member of the Aspartyl Protease Family?.- 4. The Genetic System in the Mouse.- 5. Cloning of the Mouse Submaxillary Renin cDNA.- 5.1. Translation of Mouse Submaxillary Renin mRNA.- 5.2. Cloning of Mouse Submaxillary Renin cDNA and Genetic Differential Screening.- 5.3. cDNA Sequence.- 6. Structure and Processing of Mouse and Human Renin.- 6.1. Structure of Mouse Submaxillary Preprorenins-A Model for Renin Processing.- 6.2. Structure of Mouse Kidney Renin Deduced From Genomic Sequence.- 6.3. Structure of Human Kidney Renin Deduced From cDNA Sequence.- 7. Structure of the Renin Gene and Comparison With Other Aspartyl Proteases.- 8. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Renin Gene.- 9. Conclusion.- References.- 14 Nerve Growth Factor: mRNA and Genes That Encode the ?-Subunit.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cloning of DNA Complementary to the mRNA That Encodes the ?-Subunit of Nerve Growth Factor.- 3. Human ?-NGF Gene.- 4. Structure of ?-NGF mRNA and Gene.- 5. Structure of the ?-NGF Precursor Encoded by ?-NGF mRNA and Gene.- 6. Knowledge Gained-and the Future.- References.- 15 Bombesin-Like Peptide Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure of Bombesin-Like Peptides.- 2.1. Amphibian Bomebesin-Like Peptides.- 2.2. Mammalian Bombesin-like Peptides.- 2.3. Conclusions.- 3. Distribution and Physiology.- 3.1. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide.- 3.2. Mammalian Ranatensin.- 4. Molecular Biology.- 4.1. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide.- 4.2. Amphibian Bombesin-Like Peptides.- 5. Summary and Perspectives.- 6. Acknowledgments.- References.- 16 Biosynthesis of Peptides in the Skin of Xenopus laevis: cDNAs Encoding Precursors of Caerulein, PGLa, Xenopsin, and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Precursor Sequences Deduced From Cloned cDNAs.- 2.1. Precursors of Caerulein.- 2.2. Precursor for PGLa, A New Peptide From the Skin of X. laevis.- 2.3. Precursor of Xenopsin.- 2.4. Precursor of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone.- 2.5. Comparison of the Precursors for Caerulein, PGLa, and Xenopsin.- 3. Conclusions.- References.- 17 cDNA Encoding Precursors of the Bee-Venom Peptides Melittin and Secapin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Melittin mRNA.- 3. Sequence Analysis of the Cloned mRNA and Preprosecapin.- References.- 18 Yeast ?-Factor Genes.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cloning of MF?l Using a Genetic Technique.- 3. Structure of MF?l.- 4. Cloning of MF?l and MF?2 by Hybridization.- 5. Structure of MF?2 and Comparison of MF?l and MF?2.- 6. Precursor Processing.- 7. Function of MF?1 vs MF?2.- 8. Summary.- References.

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書名 Molecular cloning of hormone genes
著作者等 Habener, Joel F.
シリーズ名 Molecular biology and biophysics
出版元 Humana Press
刊行年月 c1987
ページ数 xvii, 441 p.
大きさ 24 cm
ISBN 0896030911
NCID BA00685161
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言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国