1: Observations of the Thermal Regime of Glaciers.- 1.1. Measurements of Temperatures Inside Glaciers.- 1.1.1. General Description.- 1.1.2. Temperature Sensors.- 1.1.3. Connecting Lines and Measuring Circuits.- 1.1.4. Measuring Equipment. Increasing the Accuracy. Errors.- 1.1.5. Heating of Temperature Sensors at the Time of Measurement.- 1.2. Sources of Errors During Temperature Measurements in Glacier Boreholes.- 1.2.1. The Temperature Variation Due to the Heat Generated During Drilling. The Stabilization Time..- 1.2.2. The Effect of Free Natural Convection.- 1.2.3. Effects of Other Factors.- 1.2.4. Temperature Measurements at the End (Bottom) of a Borehole.- 2: Thermal Drilling of Glaciers.- 2.1. The Theory of Drilling by Contact with a Heated Solid Surface.- 2.1.1. The Drill Efficiency.- 2.1.2. The Ice Temperature Ahead of a Moving Thermal Drill.- 2.1.3. The Ice Temperature at the Borehole Walls and Bottom.- 2.1.4. The Temperature of the Drill Heating Surface.- 2.1.5. The Thickness of the Water Layer Between the Drill Heater and the Ice.- 2.1.6. Melting or Freezing of the Borehole Side Walls.- 2.2. Methods of Thermal Drilling of Ice.- 2.2.1. Drilling with a High-Speed Jet of Gas or Liquid Without Melting the Ice.- 2.2.2. Drilling with a Gas or Liquid Jet that Melts or Vaporizes the Ice.- 2.2.3. Ice Drilling by Contact with a Heated Solid Surface.- 2.3. Antifreeze Thermal Drilling by Direct Contact with a Solid Heater.- 2.3.1. Drilling Cold Ice with Water Retention in the Borehole.- 2.3.2. Equipment for Antifreeze Thermal Drilling.- 2.3.3. Thermal-Drilling Methods.- 2.3.4. Extracting a 'Bottom' Core.- 3: The Theory of the Thermal Regime of Glaciers.- 3.1. The Fundamental Equations and Conditions Describing the State of a Glacier.- 3.2. Equations of Motion of 1).- 4.3.2. Warming Due to Ice Motion (KT < 1).- 4.4. Temperature Gradients in the Glacier Interior.- 4.5. The Effect of the Dissipation Function.- 5: Approximate Methods for Studying the Temperature Field in a Flat Two-Dimensional Glacier With Block Sliding.- 5.1. The Method of Polynomials.- 5.1.1. The Method of the 'Zeroth Moment'.- 5.1.2. The Method of the 'Zeroth' and 'First' Moments.- 5.1.3. Improving the Method of Polynomials.- 5.1.4. The Effect of Internal Heat Sources.- 5.1.5. A More General Statement of the Problem.- 5.2. The Temperature Field in a Glacier with a Varying Surface Temperature.- 5.2.1. A Particular Solution of the Nonhomogeneous System.- 5.2.2. The General Solution. Taking the Initial Condition into Account..- 5.2.3. The Final Expression for the Temperature Field.- 6: The Thermal Regime of Glaciers.- 6.1. Thermophysical Studies of Accumulation-Ablation at the Upper and Lower Surfaces of Glaciers.- 6.2. Boundary Conditions at the Lower Surface of an Inland Glacier.- 6.2.1. Heat Balance at the Lower Surface of a Glacier.- 6.2.2. The Heat Flux Upward into the Glacier Due to Thermal Conduction.- 6.2.3. Six Types of Thermal Regimes for a Glacier Bedded on a Water-Permeable Layer.- 6.2.4. The Critical Thickness of a Glacier.- 6.3. Heat Sources Participating in the Heat Balance at the Bottom of a Glacier.- 6.3.1. The Traditional Representation of the Motion-Caused Heat Flux Arriving at the Bed.- 6.3.2. Determination of the Heat Developed at the Glacier Bed.- 6.3.3. Determination of the Heat of Internal Friction for a Glacier.- 6.3.4. Source-Strength Distribution over Glacier Thickness.- 7: The Thermal Regime of Inland Ice Caps.- 7.1. The Thermal Regime of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.- 7.1.1. A Model of a Steady-State Flat Glacier with Block Sliding and Melting at the Bed (Central Antarctica).- 7.1.2. Subglacial Lakes.- 7.1.3. The Temperature Distribution in an Ice Cap.- 7.2. Numerical Modeling of the Temperature Field of an Ice Cap.- 7.2.1. A New Statement of the Problem.- 7.2.2. Modeling the Antarctic Ice Sheet Along Flow Lines Through Vostok Station to Byrd Glacier and Through Byrd Station to the Ross Ice Shelf.- 7.2.3. The Effect of Climatic Changes on the Thermal State of Large Inland Ice Sheets.- 8: The Thermal Regime of Mountain Glaciers.- 8.1. The Melting of a Contaminated Glacier Surface.- 8.1.1. Albedo of Blackened Surface. Simplest Case..- 8.1.2. Albedo of Blackened Surface. Probability of Particle Overlapping..- 8.1.3. Albedo for Blackening with a Mixture of Different-Sized Particles.- 8.1.4. Effective Particle Size as a Characteristic for Prolonged Blackening Action.- 8.1.5. Determination of Effective Diameter and Sphere of Influence.- 8.1.6. Intensity of Artificial Melting.- 8.2. Water in Mountain Glaciers.- 8.2.1. The Thermies of the Water Under Mountain Glaciers.- 8.2.2. The Temperature of the Water on a Melting Glacier Surface.- 8.2.3. Melting Mechanism of Blackened Surface.- 8.2.4. The Stable Prolonged Melting of a Blackened Surface (Simplest Case).- 9: The Thermophysics of Ice Shelves.- 9.1. Melting at the Bottom of an Ice Shelf.- 9.1.1. The Englacial Temperature Field as an Indicator of Melting.- 9.1.2. Modeling the Heat Exchange Under a Glacier as Flow Around Plates and Slabs.- 9.1.3. Melting at the Bottom of an Ice Shelf.- 9.2. Freezing at the Bottom of an Ice Shelf.- 9.2.1. The Englacial Temperature Field as an Indicator of Freezing.- 9.2.2. Freezing Accompanying a Reduced Salinity at the Ice-Seawater Interface.- 9.2.3. Freezing in the Seaward Part of a Large Ice Shelf.- 9.3. Thermophysical Studies of Melting and Freezing at the Bottom of the Ross Ice Shelf.- 9.3.1. The Thermal Regime of the Ross Sea Under the Ice Shelf.- 9.3.2. Detection of Bottom Freezing by Thermal Core Drilling.- 9.3.3. Structure of Frozen-on Base of Ice Shelf and Freezing Rate.- 9.3.4. Direct Monitoring of Melting-Freezing Processes at the Base of the Ross Ice Shelf.- 10: Applications of the Thermophysics of Glaciers.- 10.1. The Thermal Pollution of Ice Caps with Heat-Emitting Industrial Wastes.- 10.1.1. Disposal at the Glacier Bed.- 10.1.2. Slowing the Descent of Heat-Emitting Wastes to the Glacier Bed.- 10.1.3. Burial of Heat-Emitting Wastes Close to the Glacier Surface.- 10.1.4. The Temperature Disturbance of the Interior of the Ice Sheet (Antarctica) by Heat-Emitting Wastes.- 10.1.5. Formation of a Pocket. The Thermal Disturbance at the Surface Due to Heat-Emitting Waste Deposits.- 10.1.6. Interference of Heat-Emitting Waste Deposits.- 10.2. Reconstruction of the Quaternary Inland Ice Sheet of Europe.- 10.2.1. The Form of the Surface of an Ice Sheet.- 10.2.2. The Form of the Surface of a Steady-State Ice Sheet.- 10.2.3. The Form of the Surface of an Ice Sheet with an Ablation Zone.- 10.2.4. The Surface of the Last Quaternary Ice Sheet of Europe.- 10.2.5. The Thermal Regime of the Last European Ice Sheet.- 10.2.6. Erosion and Accumulation Activity.- References.