The Cambridge history of Africa  v. 1 ~ v. 8

[general editors, J.D. Fage and Roland Oliver]

After the prehistory of Volume I, Volume II of The Cambridge History of Africa deals with the beginnings of history. It is about 500 B.C. that historical sources begin to embrace all Africa north of the Sahara and, by the end of the period, documentation is also beginning to appear for parts of sub-Saharan Africa. North of the Sahara, this situation arises since Africans were sharing in the major civilizations of the Mediterranean world. It is shown that these northern Africans were not simply passive recipients of Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Arab influences, or of the great religions and cultures of Judaism, Christianity and Islam coming from the Semitic world. They adapted these things to their own particular needs and purposes, and sometimes too contributed to their general development. But the North African civilization failed to make headway south of the Sahara. The agricultural crops that sustained it were unsuited to the tropics: the growth of populations large enough to secure effective mobilization of resources therefore depended on the development of new crops by Sudanic cultivators immediately south of the Sahara. When this had been done, the foundations were laid for a wholly African civilization and, by the end of the period, the Bantu expansion had brought almost all the southern half of the continent within its sphere.

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By 1905 most of Africa had been subjected to European rule; in the 1940s, the colonial regimes faced widespread and mounting opposition. Yet the period surveyed in this volume was no mere interlude of enforced quiescence. The cash nexus expanded hugely, as Africans came to depend for access to household necessities upon the export overseas of primary products. For the first time, tropical Africa began to constitute a significant economic counterweight to North and South Africa. The impact of white rule on African health and welfare was extremely uneven, and African lives were stunted by the labour requirements of capitalist enterprise. Many Africans suffered greatly in the First World War and in the world depression of the 1930s. By then, however, population was generally on the increase, after half a century of widespread decline. Mental horizons were much enlarged especially in the fast-growing towns. By 1940 a majority of Africans were either Muslim or Christian. South of the Sahara, mission education helped Africans to challenge white monopolies of power. Literate Africans developed new solidarities: tribal, territorial, regional and Pan-African. Meanwhile, the colonial powers were themselves improving their understanding of Africa and trying to frame policies accordingly. Co-operation with indigenous rulers often seemed the best way to retain control at minimum cost, but the search for revenue entailed disruptive economic change. By the Second World War, most colonial regimes confronted not only the criticisms of literate Africans but organised protest among wage-earners and farmers, even though anti-colonial nationalism was sitll embryonic.

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The five and a half centuries described in this volume were those in which Iron Age cultures passed from their early and experimental phases into stages of maturity characterized by long-distance trade and complex, many-tiered political systems. In Egypt and North Africa it was a period of religious and cultural consolidation when the Arabic language and the faith of Islam were adopted by the majority of the indigenous Copts and Berbers. In the sub-Saharan Savanna it was a period rather of penetration when Muslim merchants and clerics built up small but significant minorities of Negro African converts. Muslim migrants conquered the Nilotic Sudan, encircled Christian Ethiopia and settled the coastline of eastern Africa. Intercontinental trade developed across the whole width of the Sahara and also toward the Indian Ocean ports. During the last century and a half of the period the Portuguese opened the Atlantic coasts and competed with the Muslim traders of the Indian Ocean. But throughout the period African states, large and small, were strong enough, relatively, to control their visitors from the outside world. The main significance of the outsiders, whether Muslim or Christian, was as literate observers of the African scene.

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The period covered in this volume is one which begins with the emergence of anti-slave trade attitudes in Europe, and ends on the eve of European colonial conquest. But except for white conquests in Algeria and South Africa, and colonies of free Blacks on the west coast, the theme is that of African independence, initiative and adaptation in the last phase of its pre-colonial history. Under greater external pressures than ever before, from European trade, exploration, missionary and political activity, African history in this period moved with greater momentum and larger scale than in past ages, with rapid changes in economic and political life. In general the approach in this volume is through chapters focusing on regions of Africa, each written by an established authority in his field. Concluding chapters sruvey the activities of Europeans in Africa, and those of Africans and their descendants overseas.

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Volume I of The Cambridge History of Africa provides the first relatively complete and authoritative survey of African prehistory from the time of the first hominids in the Plio-Pleistone up to the spread of iron technology after c.500 B.C. The volume therefore sets the stage for the history of the continent contained in the subsequent volumes. The material remains of past human life recovered by excavation are described and interpreted in the light of palaeo-ecological evidence, primate studies and ethnographic observation, to provide a record of the evolving skills and adaptive behaviour of the prehistoric populations. The unique discoveries in East and South Africa of early hominid fossils, stone tools and other surviving evidence are discussed with full documentation, leading on to the coming of Modern Man (with new evidence showing the much greater antiquity of the 'Middle Stone Age' in the continent than had previously been thought) and the beginning of regional patterning. The volume provides a survey of the now considerable material showing the different ways of life in the forests, savannas and arid zones during the 'Later Stone Age', from its beginnings some 20,000 years ago. The divergence in cultural patternings between northern Africa and those parts of the continent south of the Sahara now becomes more apparent. Following an account of the evidence for the origins and spread of domesticates and the beginnings of village farming, the volume concludes with three chapters that trace the development of urban centres and of the political state in the Nile Valley and the changing administrative, socio-economic and religious aspects of Egyptian civilization from the Pre-Dynastic up to the Late Period.

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Volume VI of The Cambridge History of Africa covers the period 1870-1905, when the European powers (Britain, France, Germany, Portugal and Italy) divided the continent into colonial territories and vied with each other for control over vast tracts of land and valuable mineral resources. At the same time, it was a period during which much of Africa still had a history of its own. Colonial governments were very weak and could exist only by playing a large part both in opening up the continent to outside influences and in building larger political unities. The volume begins with a survey of the whole of Africa on the eve of the paper partition, and continues with nine regional surveys of events as they occured on the ground. Only in northern and southern Africa did these develop into classical colonial forms, with basis of outright conquest. Elsewhere, compromises emerged and most Africans were able to pursue the politics of survival. Partition was a process, not an event. The process was essentially one of modernisation in the face of outside challenge.

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The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Africa were a period of transition, with the trade in slaves and firearms on the Atlantic coast laying some of the foundations for European colonialism. But for most of the continent, external forces were still of marginal significance. African initiative remained supreme and produced a rich variety of political, social and intellectual innovations. In eight regional chapters the contributors to this volume, all established experts in their field, bring together for the first time these developments as they affected the whole of Africa. A concluding chapter surveys Africa in Europe and the Americas during this period.

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[目次]

  • 1. Africa on the eve of partition A. E. Atmore
  • 2. The European partition of Africa: origins and dynamics G. N. Sanderson
  • 3. North Africa Jean Ganiage
  • 4. Western Africa, 1870-1886 Yves Person
  • 5. Western Africa, 1886-1905 J. D. Hargreaves
  • 6. Western equatorial Africa Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch and Jean Stengers
  • 7. Southern Africa, 1867-1886 Shula Marks
  • 8. Southern and Central Africa, 1886-1910 Shula Marks
  • 9. Portuguese colonies and Madagascar Allan K. Smith, Gervase Clarence Smith and Hubert Deschamps
  • 10. East Africa, 1870-1905 Marcia Wright
  • 11. The Nile basin and the eastern Horn, 1870-1908 G. N. Sanderson
  • 12. The European scramble and conquest in African history John Lonsdale
  • Bibliographical essays
  • Bibliography
  • Index.

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[目次]

  • Introduction Andrew Roberts
  • 1. The imperial mind Andrew Roberts
  • 2. Aspects of economic history C. C. Wrigley
  • 3. Christianity Richard Gray
  • 4. Islam C. C. Stewart
  • 5. African cross-currents Andrew Roberts
  • 6. The Maghrib Michael Brett
  • 7. French black Africa Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, Madagascar J. Fremigacci
  • 8. British West Africa and Liberia D. C. Dorward
  • 9. Belgian Africa B. Jewsiewicki
  • 10. Portuguese and Spanish Africa, Portuguese Africa Andrew Roberts, Spanish Equatorial Guinea W. G. Clarence-Smith
  • 11. Southern Africa A. P. Walshe, and Andrew Roberts
  • 12. British Central Africa John McCracken
  • 13. East Africa Andrew Roberts
  • 14. Ethiopia and the Horn Richard Caulk
  • 15. Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan Egypt M. W. Daly, the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan G. N. Sanderson
  • Bibliographical essays
  • Bibliography
  • Index.

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[目次]

  • Introduction J. D. Face
  • 1. The legacy of prehistory J. Desmond Clark
  • 2. North Africa in the period of Phoenician and greek colonization R. C. C. Law
  • 3. North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman periods R. C. C. Law
  • 4. The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia P. L. Shinnie
  • 5. Trans-Saharan contacts and the Iron Age in West Africa Raymond Mauny
  • 6. The emergence of Bantu Africa Roland Oliver and Brian M. Fagan
  • 7. The Christian period in Mediterranean Africa W. H. C. Frend
  • 8. The Arab conquest and the rise of Islam to North Africa Michael Brett
  • 9. Christian Nubia P. L. Shinnie
  • 10. The Fatimid revolution and its aftermath in North Africa Michael Brett
  • 11. The Sahara and the Sudan from the Arab conquest of the Maghrib to the rise of the Almoravids Nehemia Levtzion
  • Bibliographical essays
  • Bibliography
  • Index.

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[目次]

  • Introduction John E. Flint
  • 1. Egypt and the Nile valley P. M. Holt
  • 2. Ethiopia and the Horn Sven Rubenson
  • 3. The Maghrib Douglas Johnson
  • 4. The nineteenth-century jihads in West Africa M. Hiskett
  • 5. Freed slave colonies in West Africa Christopher Fyfe
  • 6. West Africa in the anti-slave trade era J. F. Ade Ajayi, and B. O. Oloruntimehin
  • 7. The forest and the savanna of Central Africa David Birmingham
  • 8. East Africa: the expansion of commerce A. C. Unomah, and J. B. Webster
  • 9. The Nguni outburst J. D. Omer-Cooper
  • 10. Colonial South Africa and its frontiers J. D. Omer-Cooper
  • 11. Tradition and change in Madagascar, 1790-1870 Hubert Deschamps
  • 12. Africans overseas, 1790-1870 John E. Flint, and I. Geiss
  • 13. Changing European attitudes to Africa Robin Hallett
  • Bibliographical essays
  • Bibliography
  • Index.

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[目次]

  • Introduction: some interregional themes Roland Oliver
  • 1. Egypt, Nubia, and the Eastern Deserts Ivan Hrbek
  • 2. Ethiopia, the Red Sea and the Horn Taddesse Tamrat
  • 3. The East Coast, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean H. Neville Chittick
  • 4. The eastern Maghrib and the central Sudan H. J. Fisher
  • 5. The western Maghrib and Sudan Nehemia Levtzion
  • 6. Upper and lower guinea J. D. Fage
  • 7. Central Africa from Cameroun to the Zambezi David Birmingham
  • 8. Southern Africa David Birmingham, and Shula Marks
  • 9. The East African interior Roland Oliver.

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[目次]

  • List of figures
  • List of plates
  • Preface
  • 1. The palaeo-ecology of the African continent: the physical environment of Africa from the earliest geological to Later Stone Age times Karl W. Butzer and H. B. S. Cooke
  • 2. Origins and evolution of African Hominidae F. Clark Howell
  • 3. The earliest archaeological traces Glynn Ll. Isaac
  • 4. The cultures of the Middle Palaeolithic/Middle Stone Age J. Desmond Clark
  • 5. The Late Palaeolithic and Epi-Paiaeolithic of northern Africa Philip E. L. Smith
  • 6. The Later Stone Age in sub-Saharan Africa D. W. Phillipson
  • 7. The rise of civilization in Egypt B. G. Trigger
  • 8. Beginnings of pastoralism and cultivation in north-west Africa and the Sahara: origins of the Berbers G. Camps
  • 9. The origins of indigenous African agriculture Jack R. Harlan
  • 10. Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period in Egypt Barry J. Kemp
  • 11. Early food production in sub-Saharan Africa D. W. Phillipson
  • 12. Egypt, 1552-664 BC David O'Connor
  • Bibliographical essays
  • Bibliography
  • Index.

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[目次]

  • List of maps
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction Richard Gray
  • 1. Egypt, the Funj and Darfur P. M. Holt
  • 2. The central Sahara and Sudan H. J. Fisher
  • 3. North-West Africa: from the Maghrib to the fringes of the forest Nehemia Levtzion
  • 4. The Guinea Coast Walter Rodney
  • 5. Central Africa from Cameroun to the Zambezi David Birmingham
  • 6. Southern Africa and Madagascar Shula Marks and Richard Gray
  • 7. Eastern Africa Edward Alpers and Christopher Ehret
  • 8. Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa M. Abir
  • 9. Africa in Europe and the Americas Walter Rodney
  • Bibliographical essays
  • Bibliography
  • Index.

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この本の情報

書名 The Cambridge history of Africa
著作者等 Crowder, Michael
Clark, J. Desmond
Fage, J. D.
Flint, John E.
Gray, Richard
Oliver, Roland Anthony
Roberts, Andrew
Sanderson, Neville
Clark J.Desmond
Fage J.D.
Oliver Roland
Roberts A.D.
Sanderson G.N.
Flint John E.
巻冊次 v. 1
v. 2
v. 3
v. 4
v. 5
v. 6
v. 7
v. 8
出版元 Cambridge University Press
刊行年月 1975-1986
ページ数 v. <1-8 >
大きさ 24 cm
ISBN 0521204135
0521207010
0521209811
0521215927
0521224098
0521225051
0521228034
052122215X
NCID BA00142960
※クリックでCiNii Booksを表示
言語 英語
出版国 イギリス
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