Business and Human Rights : Dilemmas and Solutions
Edited by Sullivan, Rory; Foreword by Robinson, Mary
The end of the Cold War and the virtual disappearance of communism have completely altered the world economy. The supply chains of supermarkets and consumer goods industries have spread ever more widely and deeply into Asia, Africa and South America, while oil, mining and financial companies, among many others, have invested heavily in countries that were previously denied to them by political or ideological barriers. While companies have seized the opportunities presented by globalisation, they have in many cases been completely unprepared for the risks presented by their headlong rush into these new markets. Companies have found themselves and their business partners operating in countries where corruption, injustice, internal conflict and human rights violations are rife. An increasingly alert and critical world has acted as watchdog, highlighting corporate malpractice and the links between corporations and repressive regimes. It has increasingly been argued that companies have responsibilities for the protection and promotion of human rights. These arguments are, at least to some extent, accepted by companies.
Yet, despite the increasing use of human rights language in public policy discourses, the expectations of companies remain unclear. That is, what are the ethical imperatives? What are the legal expectations? How far does responsibility extend? What can companies actually do in practice? The debate is further complicated by the range of actors (companies, governments, international institutions, local communities, non-governmental organisations [NGOs], trade unions, consumers) involved; by debates around free trade versus and fair trade; by the discussion of the specific role of governments; and by questions about the relative merits of regulation and self-regulation. Business and Human Rights provides an analysis of the relationship between companies and human rights in the context of globalisation. The analysis is in two parts. The first maps the reasons (financial, ethical, regulatory) why human rights have become a business issue. However, simply because there are reasons why companies should be concerned about human rights, this does not say what companies should or could do.
Therefore, the second part of the book looks at the practical experiences of companies in responding to specific human rights issues in the context of their own operations, in their supply chains and in specific countries. These case studies, many of which have not been previously published or analysed from the perspective of human rights, provide important insights into questions such as: How do companies organise themselves to respond to human rights challenges? What have the experiences been-positive and negative? How have companies responded to specific situations? What are the roles and responsibilities of other actors: government, trade unions, NGOs? What are the limits to responsibility? In this outstanding collection, Rory Sullivan has drawn together leading thinkers and actors from the debate on business and human rights, to establish how far the business and human rights debate has evolved, and explore the many complex questions around roles, responsibilities and solutions that remain to be answered.
Foreword Mary Robinson, Executive Director, Ethical Globalisation Initiative
former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights 1. Introduction Rory Sullivan, Insight Investment, UK 2. The evolution of the business and human rights debate Sir Geoffrey Chandler, UK 3. The development of human rights responsibilities for multinational enterprises Peter Muchlinski, University of Kent at Canterbury, UK 4. Human rights, trade and multinational corporations David Kinley and Adam McBeth, Castan Centre for Human Rights Law, Monash University, Australia 5. Human rights and business: an ethical analysis Denis G. Arnold, University of Tennessee, USA 6. The ability of corporations to protect human rights in developing countries Frans-Paul van der Putten, Gemma Crijns and Harry Hummels, Nyenrode University, The Netherlands 7. What is the attitude of investment markets to corporate performance on human rights? David Coles, Just Pensions, UK 8. From the inside looking out: a management perspective on human rights Rory Sullivan, Insight Investment, UK, and Nina Seppala, Warwick Business School, UK 9. Corporate social responsibility failures in the oil industry Charles Woolfson, University of Glasgow, UK, and Matthias Beck, Glasgow Caledonian University, UK 10. Mining in conflict zones Simon Handelsman, Global Issues Advisors, USA 11. Health, business and human rights: the responsibility of health professionals within the corporation Norbert Goldfield, 3M Health Information Systems, USA 12. Privatising infrastructure development: "development refugees" and the resettlement challenge Christopher McDowell, Macquarie University, Australia 13. The contribution of multinationals to the fight against HIV/AIDS Steven Lim and Michael Cameron, University of Waikato, New Zealand 14. Elimination of child labour: business and local communities Bahar Ali Kazmi and Magnus Macfarlane, Warwick Business School, UK 15. SA8000: human rights in the workplace Deborah Leipziger, consultant, The Netherlands, and Eileen Kaufman, Social Accountability International, USA 16. Corporate responsibility and social capital: the nexus dilemma in Mexican maquiladoras Luis Reygadas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico 17. From fuelling conflict to oiling the peace: harnessing the peace-building potential of extractive sector companies operating in conflict zones Jessica Banfield, International Alert, UK 18. Extracting conflict Gary MacDonald, Monkey Forest Consulting Ltd, Canada, and Timothy McLaughlin, independent consultant, USA 19. Managing risk and building trust: the challenge of implementing the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights Bennett Freeman, Former US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, and Genoveva Hernandez Uriz, European University Institute, Italy 20. Taking responsibility for bribery: the multinational corporation's role in combating corruption David Hess, University of Michigan Business School, USA, and Thomas Dunfee, University of Pennsylvania, USA 21. Taking the business and human rights agenda to the limit? The Body Shop and Amnesty International "Make Your Mark" campaign Heike Fabig, University of Sussex, UK, and Richard Boele, Australian Institute of Corporate Citizenship 22. Moving forwards Rory Sullivan, Insight Investment, UK Bibliography
Business and Human Rights : Dilemmas and Solutions