In 1904 China encouraged the business community to set up chambers of commerce, in an effort to bridge the gulf between government officials and businessmen. They encouraged businesses to engage in industry and commerce, and to boost competitiveness with foreign capital investors. Over 45 years spanning 1904 to 1949 Chinese chambers of commerce flourished and matured, and played a key role in the structural and economic creation of modern China. This major new work, which is being made available outside of China for the very first time, will appeal to people studying ancient China. Published in association with Social Sciences Academic Press (China).