This book offers a lively and richly illustrated practical guide to the collection, analysis, and interpretation of x-ray absorption fine structure spectra, including both XANES and EXAFS. Right away, the book asks questions and gives voice to important but frequently overlooked issues faced by every XAFS user: What questions can the technique address? What are its limitations? How can we know the results are valid? The author highlights the four major techniques: fingerprinting, linear combination analysis, principle component analysis, and modeling. It also includes several case studies taken from various disciplines and illustrating real application of various analytic techniques, from simple to more complex.