Underwater Forensic Investigation

By (author) Becker, Ronald F.

The evidence discovered at underwater crime scenes must be handled with the same attention to proper chain of custody procedures as with any other type of investigation. Improper handling of these scenes can lead to evidence being lost, unrecognizable, destroyed, contaminated, or rendered inadmissible at the time of trial. Updated and expanded, Underwater Forensic Investigation, Second Edition presents a comprehensive approach to the processing of an underwater crime scene and the steps necessary to conduct the operation. The book summarizes the history, physics, and laws applicable to underwater investigations and includes topics such as team formation, roles, deployment, and accountability. Explaining procedures that can make a true difference in the final outcome of water-related incidents, the author also debunks myths associated with submerged evidence. This second edition contains several new chapters on photography, contaminated sites, preservation of evidence, and release of the crime scene, and includes expanded information on death investigation and organizing the dive team. Nearly 100 color illustrations supplement the text. The science of water-related investigations is still in its infancy, and hence, the field needs accurate and useful sources of education. This text will assist law enforcement professionals and those in other areas of public safety in gaining the knowledge that has historically been lacking. The incorporation of the procedures presented will enable those tasked with working these scenes to develop a greater degree of professionalism, objectivity, thoroughness, and accuracy relating to the investigation of water-related incidents-increasing the chance for successful resolution of these difficult cases.

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  • Introduction New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Man and the Sea Law Enforcement and Underwater Evidence Myth 1 Myth 2 Myth 3 Myth 4 Myth 5 Myth 6 Myth 7 Myth 8 Myth 9 Myth 10 A Brief History of Underwater Investigation New Words and Concepts Learning Outcomes Diving History Diving Dress Caisson Disease The Cause of Decompression Sickness Nitrogen Narcosis Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus Underwater Investigation Some Important Dates in the History of SCUBA Diving An Explanation of Pressure and the Laws of Boyle, Charles, Dalton, and Henry New Words or Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Recognize Charles Law Nitrogen Narcosis Decompression Sickness Oxygen Toxicity The Underwater Forensic Investigator New Words and Concepts Learning Outcomes Introduction Beginning Perspectives Standardized Selection and Operations Swimming Skills Diving Skills Incident Command Structure Incident Commander Dive Team Coordinator Public Information Officer Incident Safety Officer Team Structure Dive Team Coordinating Board Team Members Team Leader Tenders Divers Intelligence Officer Photographer Lift Specialists Equipment Specialist Archivist Medical Officer Training Coordinator The Law of Search and Seizure New Words and Concepts Learning Outcomes The U.S. Constitution and Due Process The Fourth Amendment The Fifth Amendment The Sixth Amendment The Exclusionary Rule History Exceptions Emergency Searches Warrantless Searches Based on Reasonableness Consent Searches Plain-View Searches Open-Field Exception The Underwater Crime Scene New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Search Briefing Bottom Structure Current Surf, Waves, and Tide Perimeter Marking Boat Searches Search Patterns Random Search Sweep Searches Parallel Searches Circular Search Snag Search River Search Relocating the Search Site Profiling Temporal and Geographical Location of Evidence Establishing a Reference Point Crime Scene Measurements Orienting Evidence Grid Searches The Underwater Crime Scene Sketch Handling Evidence The Press Underwater Photography New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Equipment Taking Pictures Underwater Photographic Log Video-Recording Log Photographing the Underwater Crime Scene Video Recording Logging Photos Medicolegal Aspects of Underwater Death New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Unattended Water Deaths Body Recovery Identification of Submerged Bodies Postmortem Changes Putrefaction Algor Mortis Rigor Mortis Ocular Changes Livor Mortis (Postmortem Lividity) Errors in Interpreting Postmortem Changes Postmortem Interval Drowning Anthropophagi (Marine Depredation) Antemortem, Postmortem, and Perimortem Injuries Mass Disasters Firearms Recovery and Investigation New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Recovering Firearms Firearms Investigation Fingerprints Ballistics Testing Weapon Identification Firearm Identification National Integrated Ballistics Information Network Equipment Types of Firearms The Firing Mechanism Types of Bullets Propellants Primers Cartridge Cases Shotshells The Early History of the Examination of Firearms Examination of Weapons Examination of Bullets Caliber Rifling Twists Land and Groove Width Bullet Comparisons Examination of Cartridge Cases Examination Objectives Legal Aspects Class Characteristics Cartridge Evidence Chain of Custody Expert Testimony Aircraft and Vehicle Investigations New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Locating the Aircraft Measuring the Debris Field Handling Evidence Aircraft Recovery Vehicle Investigations Vehicular Drownings Vehicle Recoveries Recovery Checklist Vessel Recoveries New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Nautical Terms and Measurement Contents xi Boat Accident Investigation Propeller Injuries Boat Accident Report Boat Data Accident Data Vessel Fire Arson Vessel Explosions Arson or Detonation Checklist Light Filaments Preparing Dive Teams for Major Investigations Equipment New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Dry Suits Dive Helmets Tether Harnesses Buoyancy Control Devices Buoyancy Lifting Buoyancy Alternative Air Supply Face Masks Regulators, Gauges, and Computers Diver: From Top to Bottom Support Personnel Review Questions References Diving in Contaminated Water New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Biological Contaminants Chemical Contaminants Contaminated Water Equipment Using Experts and Evidence in the Courtroom New Words and Concepts Learning Outcomes Introduction Preparing for Trial Identification Chain of Custody Authentication Photographs Diagrams, Maps, Plats Video Recordings Physical Evidence Multiple Predicates The Underwater Investigator as an Expert Witness Scientific Evidence Defense Lawyers, Prosecutors, and Investigators New Words and Concepts Student Learning Outcomes Introduction Defensive Burden Affirmative Defenses Defense Strategies Suppression Hearings The Prosecution Jurisdiction Venue In-Court Identification Elements of the Offense Testimonial Devices to Avoid the Truth Error-Free Investigations Ethical Testimony Index

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書名 Underwater Forensic Investigation
著作者等 Becker, Ronald F.
出版元 Taylor & Francis Inc
刊行年月 2013.04.12
版表示 2 Rev ed
ページ数 371p
ISBN 9781466507517
言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国