Polymer Blends and Composites

By (author) Manson, John A.


  • 1. Homopolymer Structure and Behavior.- 1.1. High Polymers.- 1.2. Molecular Size and Shape.- 1.2.1. Chain Conformation.- 1.2.2. Chain Entanglement.- 1.3. Molecular Structure.- 1.3.1. Configurations of Polymer Chains.- 1.3.2. Stereo and Geometrical Isomerism.- 1.3.3. Random Branching.- 1.3.4. Nonrandom Branching.- 1.3.5. Crosslinking.- 1.4. Crystallinity and Order.- 1.4.1. Fringed Micelle Model.- 1.4.2. Folded-Chain Single Crystals.- 1.4.3. Extended-Chain Crystals.- 1.4.4.Spherulites.- 1.5. Mechanical Response: Elasticity and Viscoelasticity.- 1.5.1. Molecular and Segmental Motion.- 1.5.2. Modulus-Temperature Behavior.- 1.5.3. Five Regions of Viscoelastic Behavior.- 1.5.4. Rubberlike Elasticity.- 1.5.5. Dynamic Mechanical Spectroscopy.- 1.5.6. Stress-Relaxation and Creep Behavior.- 1.5.7. Time-Temperature Relationship.- 1.6. Energetics and Mechanics of Fracture.- 1.6.1. General Approach to Fracture.- 1.6.2. Energy Balance in Fracture.- 1.6.3. Viscoelastic Rupture of Elastomers.- 1.7. Mechanical Testing of Polymers.- 1.7.1. Stress-Strain and Fracture Behavior.- 1.7.2. Impact Strength.- 1.7.3. Fatigue.- Appendix A. Polymer Synthesis.- Appendix B. Basic Mechanical Properties and Relationships.- Bibliography of Polymer Books and Journals.- 2. General Behavior of Polymer Mixtures.- 2.1. Methods of Mixing Polymer Pairs.- 2.1.1. Polymer Blends.- 2.1.2. Graft Copolymers.- 2.1.3. Block Copolymers.- 2.1.4. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPN's).- 2.2. Interdiffusion.- 2.3. Nomenclature.- 2.4. Electron Microscopy.- 2.5. The Incompatibility Problem.- 2.5.1. Thermodynamics of Mixing.- 2.5.2. Polymer-Polymer Phase Diagrams.- 2.6. Bulk Behavior of Two-Phase Polymeric Materials.- 2.6.1. Glass Transitions.- 2.6.2. Modulus-Temperature Behavior of Model Polyblends.- 2.6.3. Stress-Relaxation Behavior.- 2.6.4. The Takayanagi Models.- 2.6.5. Free Volume Model.- 2.6.6. Other Models.- 2.6.7. Morphology-Modulus Interrelationships.- 2.7. Analogy between Polymer Blends and Crystalline Homopolymers.- 2.8. Polymer Blend Chronology.- Appendix A. Counterpart Phase Separation Characteristics of Metallic Alloys and Inorganic Glasses.- Bibliography of Polymer Blend Symposia.- 3. Rubber-Toughened Plastics.- 3.1. Synthesis and Morphology.- 3.1.1. Impact-Resistant Polystyrene.- Solution-Type Graft Copolymers.- Phase Inversion.- Grafting vs. Mechanical Entrapment.- 3.1.2. ABS Resins.- Emulsion Polymerization.- Structure of the Latex Grafts.- 3.1.3. Origin of the Cell Structure.- 3.1.4. Poly(vinyl chloride) Blends.- 3.1.5. Mixed Latex Blends.- 3.2. Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Polyblends.- 3.2.1. The Effect of Compatibility on Transition Behavior.- 3.2.2. Impact Resistance and Deformation.- Impact Behavior.- Tensile and Creep Behavior.- Fatigue Behavior.- 3.2.3. Toughening Mechanisms.- Crazing and Shear Phenomena.- Characteristics of the Rubber.- 3.3. Optical Properties of Polyblends.- 3.4. Oxidation and Weathering of Polyblends.- 4. Diblock and Triblock Copolymers.- 4.1. Synthesis.- 4.1.1. Dilithium Initiators.- 4.1.2. Mechanochemical Methods.- 4.2. Solution Behavior of Block Copolymers.- 4.3. Plastic Compositions.- 4.4. Thermoplastic Elastomers.- 4.5. Long-Range Domain Order.- 4.6. Thermodynamics of Domain Characteristics.- 4.7. Thermodynamic Criteria for Phase Separation.- 4.7.1. Zeroth Approximation.- 4.7.2. Dilute Solution Approach.- 4.7.3. Diffusion Equation Approach.- 4.8. Effect of Solvent Casting on Morphology.- 4.9. Effect of Deformation on Morphology.- 4.10. Mixtures of A-B Blocks with A and B Mechanical Blends.- 4.11. Rheological Behavior of Block Copolymers.- 5. Multiblock Copolymers, Including Ionomers.- 5.1. Segmented Polyurethane Elastomers.- 5.1.1. Modulus and Swelling Behavior.- 5.1.2. Stress-Strain Behavior.- 5.1.3. Stress-Optical Behavior.- 5.1.4. Tensile Strength and Abrasion Resistance.- 5.1.5. Some Generalizations.- 5.2. Carboxylic Rubbers and Ionomers.- 5.2.1. Carboxylic Rubbers.- 5.2.2. Ionomers.- 5.2.3. Phase Structure of Ionomers.- 6. Crystalline Block Copolymers.- 6.1. Crystallizable Block Copolymers: Styrene-Ethylene Oxide.- 6.1.1. Synthesis and General Properties.- 6.1.2. Mesomorphic Gels.- 6.1.3. Crystalline Forms from the Melt.- 6.1.4. Crystalline Forms Cast from Solution : Spherulitic Morphology.- 6.1.5. Crystalline Forms from Dilute Solution: Single Crystals.- 6.1.6. Bulk Thermal and Transition Behavior.- 6.1.7. Mechanical, Dielectric, and Rheological Behavior.- 6.2. Crystallization: General Aspects.- 6.2.1. Fractionation.- 6.2.2. Structural Models.- 6.2.3. Criterion of Stability.- 6.2.4. Energetics.- 6.3. Kinetics of Crystallization.- 6.3.1. Effect of Dissolution Temperature.- 6.3.2. Effects of the Original Crystallization Temperature.- 6.3.3. Number and Nature of Nuclei.- 6.3.4. Effect of Final Crystallization Temperature.- 6.3.5. Rate of Crystallization.- 6.3.6. Variation in Partial Volumes.- 6.4. Siloxane Block Copolymers.- 6.4.1. Synthesis.- 6.4.2. Morphology and Properties.- 6.5. Polyallomers.- 6.6. Summary of Block Copolymer Systems.- 7. Miscellaneous Grafted Copolymers.- 7.1. General Considerations.- 7.2. Surface Graft Copolymers.- 7.2.1. Uses of Surface Grafts.- 7.2.2. Surface Grafts Involving Proteins.- 7.3. Degradation and Crosslinking Reactions.- 7.4. Grafting onto Cellulosic Materials.- 7.4.1. Synthetic Methods.- 7.4.2. More-Heterogeneous-Type Grafts.- 7.4.3. More-Homogeneous-Type Grafts.- 7.5. Nylon Graft Copolymers.- 7.6. Grafting with Polyfunctional Monomers.- 7.6.1. Polyolefins.- 7.6.2. Poly(vinyl chloride).- 7.7. Multipolymer Grafts.- 7.8. Cationic Graft Copolymers.- 8. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks.- 8.1. Synthesis.- 8.2. Morphology of IPN's.- 8.2.1. General Features.- 8.2.2. Effect of Polymerization Sequence.- 8.2.3. Compatibility and Interpenetration.- 8.3. Physical and Mechanical Behavior of IPN's.- 8.3.1. Static Relaxation in IPN's.- 8.3.2. Dynamic Mechanical Spectroscopy (DMS).- 8.4. Ultimate Mechanical Behavior of IPN's.- 8.5. Interpenetrating Elastomeric Networks (IEN's).- 8.5.1. Morphology of IEN's.- 8.5.2. Mechanical Behavior of IEN's.- 8.6. Semi-IPN Structure and Properties.- 8.6.1. Definition of Semi-IPN's.- 8.6.2. Morphology.- 8.6.3. Mechanical Behavior.- 8.7. AB Crosslinked Copolymers.- 8.8. Topology of IPN's.- 8.8.1. Simultaneous Interpenetrating Networks (SIN's).- 8.8.2. Latex IPN's.- 8.9. Dual Phase Continuity in IPN's.- 9. Miscellaneous Polymer Blends.- 9.1. Rubber-Rubber Polyblends.- 9.2. Bicomponent and Biconstituent Fibers.- 9.2.1. Bicomponent Fiber Systems.- 9.2.2. Biconstituent Fiber Systems.- 9.3. Multilayer Films by Melt Coextrusion.- 9.4. Synthetic Paper Polyblends.- 9.5. Charge-Mosaic Membranes.- 9.6. Flow and Morphology of Two-Component Systems.- 9.7. Compatible Polymer Blends.- 9.7.1. Compatible Blends of Amorphous Polymers.- 9.7.2. Isomorphic Polymer Pairs.- 9.8. Wood As a Polyblend-Composite.- 9.8.1. Chemistry and Morphology.- 9.8.2. Mechanical Behavior.- 9.8.3. Wood Modification.- 9.9. Association Complexes.- 10. Reinforcement of Elastomers.- 10.1. Historical Aspects.- 10.2. Types of Fillers.- 10.3. Size and Surface Characteristics of Elastomer Reinforcers.- 10.3.1. Filler Surface Chemistry.- 10.3.2. Morphology and Microstructure of Carbon Blacks.- 10.4. Aggregation and Agglomeration.- 10.4.1. Structure in Carbon Blacks.- 10.4.2. Dispersion of Carbon Black within the Elastomer.- 10.4.3. Structure in Silica Fillers.- 10.5. Bound Rubber.- 10.6. The Mullins Softening Effect.- 10.7. Viscoelastic Rupture of Reinforced Elastomers.- 10.8. Restriction of Molecular Mobility by Filler Surfaces.- 10.9. Thermodynamic Aspects of Reinforcement.- 10.9.1. Modulus Increases.- 10.9.2. The Flory-Rehner Equation.- 10.9.3. Ultimate Tensile Strength.- 10.9.4. Mechanisms and Mechanics of Reinforcement.- 10.10. Swelling Anomalies in Filled Elastomers.- 10.11. Guth-Smallwood Relationship.- 10.12. Crystallizing Elastomers.- 10.13. Model Elastomer-Filler Systems.- 10.14. Effect of Pressure on Reinforcement.- 10.15. Relative Importance of Reinforcement Modes.- 11. Filled Porous Systems.- 11.1. Introduction.- 11.2. Polymer-Impregnated Wood.- 11.2.1. Experimental Conditions.- 11.2.2. Polymerization Characteristics.- 11.2.3. Properties: Dimensional Stability.- 11.2.4. Properties: Mechanical.- 11.2.5. General Comments.- 11.3. Polymer-Impregnated Cements, Mortars, and Concretes.- 11.3.1. Monomer-Impregnated Cement Mixes.- 11.3.2. Latex-Concrete Mixtures.- 11.3.3. Polymer-Impregnated Cements and Concretes.- Mechanical Properties.- Water Absorption and Related Behavior.- Thermal Properties.- Environmental Resistance.- Models for Mechanical Behavior.- Related Systems.- 11.3.4. General Comments.- 12. Particle-and Fiber-Reinforced Plastics.- 12.1. Particulate Phases.- 12.1.1. Mechanical Behavior at Small Strains.- Static and Dynamic Modulus.- Stress Relaxation and Creep.- Damping.- 12.1.2. Mechanical Behavior at Large Strains.- Large vs. Small Strains.- Stress Relaxation.- Yield and Strength Phenomena.- Fracture Toughness.- 12.1.3. Transport Behavior and Other Physical Properties.- Permeability.- Thermal and Electrical Conductivity.- Coefficients of Thermal Expansion and Density.- 12.2. Fiber-Reinforced Composites.- 12.2.1. Mechanical Properties.- Modulus and Tensile Strength.- Fatigue Behavior.- 12.2.2. Role of the Matrix and Interface.- 12.3. Matrix and Interface Behavior.- 12.3.1. Molecular Effects of Rigid Inclusions.- Effects of Fillers on Relaxation Behavior and Other Transitions.- Sorption and Permeability.- Mechanisms of Ordering at the Interface.- 12.3.2. Effects of the Environment.- Appendix A. Typical Equations Used to Predict Moduli of Particulate Composites.- 13. A Peek into the Future.- 13.1. Classification Scheme for Composite Materials.- 13.2. Classification of Polymer Blends.- 13.3. Polymeric Eutectics.- 13.4. The Polymer Mixing Problem.- 13.4.1. Dilute Polymer Solution-Air Interface.- 13.4.2. Emulsion Polymer Conformations.- 13.4.3. Polyblend Phase Boundaries.- 13.4.4. Interfacial Tensions of Polymers.- 13.5. Noise and Vibration Damping.- 13.5.1. Vibration-Damping Blends.- 13.5.2. Extensional and Constrained Layer Damping.- 13.5.3. Gradient IPN's.- 13.5.4. Constrained Layer Coatings.- 13.6. Paints and Adhesives.- 13.7. An Old Art in a Changing World.- References.- Polymer Index.

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書名 Polymer Blends and Composites
著作者等 Manson, John A.
出版元 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
刊行年月 2012.11.05
版表示 Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1976
ページ数 532p
大きさ H229 x W152
ISBN 9781461357100
言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国