Fundamentals and hard-switching converters

Adrian Ioinovici

This unique and comprehensive five volume set (totalling 2144pp) focuses on the study of both classical and state-of-the-art power conversion electronic circuits, and their wide variety of applications in electronic equipment. It includes many recent research advancements that have been previously unpublished and that are currently impacting the industry. Each volume is organised in basic-to-sophisticated crescendo, appealing to senior undergraduate and graduate electrical engineering minor students and major students, researchers and designers. Each volume builds on the previous volume, with a structure that facilitates access to most complex solutions for all readers. This volume: * Clearly summarizes DC to DC converters in a reference that is accessible for researchers and designers working with power circuits * Presents previously unpublished advancements in hard switching converters including gallium nitride transistors, VRMs for microprocessors, and interleaving for reduced electromagnetic interference * Includes the latest technology covered in senior undergraduate and graduate courses with electrical engineering (e.g. telecoms) * Companion website with PowerPoint sides

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[目次]

  • Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Why Energy Conversion Electronics Circuits? 1.1.1 Applications in Information and Telecommunication Industry 1.1.2 Applications in Renewable Energy Conversion 1.1.3 Future Energy Conversion -- Fuel Cells 1.1.4 Electrical Vehicles 1.1.5 Applications in Electronic Display Devices 1.1.6 Audio Amplifiers 1.1.7 Applications in Portable Electronic Devices 1.1.8 Applications in High Voltage Physics Experiments and Atomic Accelerators 1.1.9 Lighting Technology 1.1.10 Aerospace Applications 1.1.11 Power System Conditioning 1.1.12 Energy Recycling in Manufacturing Industry 1.1.13 Applications in Space Exploration 1.1.14 Defense Applications 1.1.15 Drives and High-Power Industrial Applications . Classification of power electronic circuits 1.2 Basic Principles of Operation of a Power Electronics Circuit 1.3 Basic Components of the Power Circuit : Power Semiconductor Switches and Passive Reactive Elements 1.3.1 Uncontrollable Switches - Power Diodes 1.3.2. Semi-controllable Switches (Thyristors) 1.3.3 Controllable Switches A. Bipolar Junction Transistor B. Power Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) C. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor 1.3.4 Gallium Nitride (GaN) Switch Technology 1.3.5 Energy Losses Associated with Power Switches A. Switching Losses B. Off-state Leakage Power Loss C. Conduction Power Loss D. Gate Drive Power Loss Heat sinks 1.3.6 Passive Reactive Elements A. Capacitors B Inductors, Transformers, Coupled Inductors 1.3.7 Ultracapacitors 1.4 Basic Steady-state Analysis of Duty-cycle Controlled Converters with Constant Switching Frequency 1.4.1. Input-to-output Voltage Ratio for Basic dc-dc Converters 1.4.2. Continuous and Discontinuous Conduction Operation Modes 1.4.3. Design of the Elements of the Basic Converters 1.4.4. Controller for Duty-cycle Control (PWM) 1.4.5. Conversion Efficiency. Hard- switching and Soft-switching 1.5 Introduction to Switched-Capacitor (SC) Converters 1.6 Frequency-Controlled Converters 1.6.1 Resonant Converters 1.6.2 Quasi-Resonant Converters (QRC) 1.7 Overview on ac-dc Rectifiers and dc-ac Inverters 1.7.1 Rectifiers 1.7.2 Inverters 1.8 Cases Studies Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Case Study 3 Highlights of the chapter References Problems Chapter 2 MODELING DC-DC CONVERTERS List of Symbols 2.1 What is the Purpose of Modeling the Power Stage? 2.2 Average state-space equations. Small ripple approximation (time-linearization) 2.3 DC voltage gain and ac small-signal open-loop transfer functions based on average state-space equations for converters operating in continuous conduction mode 2.3.1 DC voltage gain and ac open-loop line-to-load voltage transfer function 2.3.2 Duty cycle -- to --output voltage ac transfer function. Small-signal approximation 2.3.3 DC gain and ac small-signal open-loop transfer functions of the boost, buck and buck-boost converters operating in CCM (I) Boost converter DC analysis of the boost converter in CCM Small-signal open-loop transfer functions of the boost converter in CCM (a) Input (line)-to-output (load voltage) small signal transfer function of the boost converter in CCM (b) Duty-cycle (control) -- to --output (load voltage ) small-signal open- loop transfer function of boost converter in CCM (c) Line (input voltage ) -- to -- inductor current small-signal open-loop transfer function of the boost converter in CCM (d) Equivalent open-loop input impedance of boost converter in CCM (e) Duty-cycle (control) -- to -- inductor current open-loop small-signal transfer function of boost converter in CCM (II) Buck converter DC analysis of the buck converter in CCM Open-loop small-signal transfer functions of the buck converter in CCM (a) Input (line)-to-output (load voltage) small signal transfer function of the buck converter in CCM (b)Duty-cycle (control) -- to --output (load voltage ) small-signal open- loop transfer function of buck converter in CCM (c)Line (input voltage ) -- to -- inductor current small-signal open-loop transfer function of the buck converter in CCM (d)Equivalent open-loop input impedance of buck converter in CCM (e)Duty-cycle (control) -- to -- inductor current open-loop small-signal transfer function of buck converter in CCM (III) Buck-boost converter DC analysis of the buck-boost converter in CCM Open-loop small-signal transfer functions of the buck-boost converter in CCM (a)Input (line)-to-output (load voltage) small signal transfer function of the buck-boost converter in CCM (b)Duty-cycle (control) -- to --output (load voltage ) small-signal open- loop transfer function of buck-boost converter in CCM (c)Line (input voltage ) -- to -- inductor current small-signal open-loop transfer function of the buck-boost converter in CCM (d)Equivalent open-loop input impedance of buck-boost converter in CCM (e)Duty-cycle (control) -- to -- inductor current open-loop small-signal transfer function of buck-boost converter in CCM 2.3.4 Graphical averaged models of the boost, buck and buck-boost converters operating in CCM (I) Boost converter Equivalent open-loop output impedance of boost converter operating in CCM (II) Buck converter Equivalent open-loop output impedance of buck converter in CCM (III) Buck-boost converter Equivalent open-loop output impedance of buck-boost converter in CCM 2.3.5 Canonical graphical averaged models of dc-dc converters operating in CCM (I) Boost converter (II) Buck converter (III) Buck-boost converter 2.4 DC voltage gain and ac small-signal open-loop transfer functions based on average state-space equations for converters operating in discontinuous conduction mode 2.4.1 Reduced- order averaged models (I) Boost converter Average state-space equations of boost converter operating in DCM DC analysis and small-signal open-loop transfer functions of boost converter operating in DCM a)DC analysis of boost converter in DCM. Condition for operation at the boundary between CCM and DCM b)Open-loop small-signal transfer functions of boost converter operating in DCM (II) Buck-boost converter Average state-space equations of buck-boost converter operating in DCM DC analysis and small-signal open-loop transfer functions of buck- boost converter operating in DCM. Condition of operation at the boundary between CCM and DCM (III) Buck converter Average state-space equations of buck converter operating in DCM DC analysis and small-signal open-loop transfer functions of buck converter operating in DCM. Condition of operation at the boundary between CCM and DCM An alternative way for obtaining first-order average state-space equations for converters operating in DCM by neglecting the dynamics of the inductor current (I) Boost converter (II) Buck-boost converter (III) Buck converter 2.4.2 Full- order averaged models Average state-space equations without neglecting the inductor currentdynamics (I) Boost converter (II) Buck-boost converter (III) Buck converter Inclusion of the parasitic resistances Full-order small-signal transfer functions for converters operating in DCM (I) Boost converter (II) Buck-boost converter (III) Buck converter 2.5 Average PWM switch model 2.5.1 Average PWM switch model for converters operating in continuous conduction mode (I) Boost converter (II) Buck converter (III) Buck-boost converter 2.5.2 Average PWM switch model for converters operating in discontinuous conduction mode (I) Boost converter DC Analysis of Boost Converter in DCM Small-Signal Analysis of Boost Converter in DCM (a) Duty Cycle-to-Output Transfer Function of Boost Converter in DCM (b) Line-to-Output Transfer Function of Boost Converter in DCM (c) Duty Cycle-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function of Boost Converter in DCM (d) Input-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function of Boost Converter in DCM (e) Small-Signal Input Impedance of Boost Converter in DCM (f) Small-Signal Output Impedance of Boost Converter in DCM (II) Buck converter DC Analysis of the Buck Converter in DCM Small-Signal Analysis of Buck Converter in DCM (a) Duty Cycle-to-Output Transfer Function of Buck Converter in DCM (b) Line-to-Output Transfer Function of Buck Converter in DCM (c) Duty cycle-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function of Buck Converter in DCM (d) Input Voltage-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function of Buck Converter in DCM (e) Open-loop Input Impedance of Buck Converter in DCM (f) Open-loop Output Impedance of Buck Converter in DCM (III) Buck-boost converter DC Analysis of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM Small-Signal Analysis of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM (a)Duty Cycle-to-Output Transfer Function of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM (b) Line-to-Output Transfer Function of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM (c) Duty cycle-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM (d) Input-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM (e) Open-Loop Input Impedance of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM.. (f) Open-Loop Output Impedance of Buck-Boost Converter in DCM 2.6 Average model of the switches resistances and diode forward voltage . Average model of the PWM 2.6.1 Average model of the switches dc resistances and diode forward voltage CCM operation DCM operation 2.6.2 Average model of the PWM 2.7 Average resonant switch model for the dc and small-signal analysis of QRC Converters 2.7.1 Average model of the zero-current (ZC) resonant switch 2.7.2 Average model of the zero-voltage (ZV) resonant switch 2.7.3 DC analysis and open-loop small-signal transfer functions of ZCS quasi-resonant converters (I) ZCS QR Buck Converter (II) ZCS QR Boost Converter (III) ZCS QR Buck-boost Converter 2.7.4 DC analysis and open-loop small-signal transfer functions of ZVS quasi-resonant converters (I) ZVS QR Buck Converter (II) ZVS QR Boost Converter (III) ZVS QR Buck-boost Converter 2.8 Simulation and computer-aided design of power electronics circuits 2.9 Case Study Highlights of the chapter References Problems Chapter 3 CLASSICAL DC-DC PWM HARD-SWITCHING CONVERTERS 3.1 Buck dc-dc PWM Hard-switching Converter 3.1.1 Influence of the dc Resistance of the Inductor 3.1.2 Boundary Control 3.1.3 Calculation of Losses in Buck Converter Operating in CCM by Considering the Inductor Current Ripple and the ESR of the Capacitor 3.1.4 Design of Buck Converter in CCM Operation 3.1.5 Buck Converter with Input Filter 3.1.6 Review of the Steady-State Analysis of the Buck Converter in DCM Operation 3.1.7 Design of a buck converter in DCM operation 3.1.8 Aspects of Dynamic Response of Buck Converter 3.2 Boost dc-dc PWM Hard-switching Converter 3.2.1 Boost Converter in Steady-State CCM Operation 3.2.2 Boost Converter in Steady-State DCM Operation 3.2.3 Aspects of Dynamic Response of Boost Converter 3.3 Buck-Boost dc-dc PWM Hard-switching Converter 3.3.1 Buck-Boost Converter in Steady-State CCM Operation Design example -- Case study 3.3.2 Buck-Boost Converter in Steady-State DCM Operation 3.3.2 Aspects of Dynamic Response of Buck-Boost Converter 3.4 Aeuk (boost-buck) PWM Hard-switching Converter 3.4.1 Derivation and switching operation of the Aeuk converter 3.4.2 Steady-state analysis of Aeuk converter in CCM operation and its design. 3.4.3DC voltage gain and ac small-signal characteristics of the Aeuk converter in the presence of parasitic resistances 3.4.4 Design example and commercial available Aeuk converters Design of a Aeuk converter based on National Semiconductor LM2611current-mode controller 3.4.5 Discontinuous conduction mode for Aeuk converter (a) Discontinuous Capacitor Voltage Mode (b) Input or Output Discontinuous Inductor Current Mode (c) Discontinuous Inductor Current ModE 3.4.6 Aeuk converter with coupled-inductor 3.5 SEPIC PWM Hard-switching Converter 3.5.1 SEPIC converter in CCM operation 3.5.2 Steady-state analysis of SEPIC converter in CCM operation 3.5.3 Small-signal analysis of the SEPIC converter in CCM operation 3.5.4 Commercially available SEPIC converters. Cases study SEPIC converter based on National Semiconductor LM3478 controller SEPIC converter based on Unitrode ( Texas Instruments) UCC3803 Controller SEPIC converter based on Unitrode ( Texas Instruments) UC2577 controller for automotive applications SEPIC converter based on Texas Instruments TPS61175 IC controller 3.5.5 SEPIC converter in DCM operation 3.5.6 AC analysis of SEPIC converter in DICM 3.5.7 Isolated SEPIC converter 3.6 Zeta ( Inverse SEPIC ) PWM Hard-switching Converter 3.6.1 Zeta converter in CCM operation 3.6.2 Steady-state analysis of Zeta converter in CCM operation 3.6.3 Small-signal analysis of the Zeta converter in CCM operation 3.6.4 Design example and cases study Zeta converter based on the Sipex SP6126 Controller Zeta converter based on the dual-channel synchronous current-mode switching controller ADP1877 from Analog Devices Zeta converter based on the Texas Instruments TPS40200 non-synchronous voltage-mode controller 3.6.5 Zeta converter in DCM operation 3.6.6 Isolated Zeta converter 3.7 Forward Converter 3.7.1 The role of high-frequency transformer in the structure of dc-dC Converters 3.7.2 Derivation of forward converter 3.7.3 Operation of forward converter in CCM a) first switching stage b) second switching stage c) third switching stage d) Derivation of the input-to-output dc voltage conversion ratio e) Limit on maximum duty-ratio 3.7.4 Operation of forward converter in DCM and design considerations for CCM and DCM 3.7.5 Multiple-output forward converter 3.7.6 Other core reset strategies Clamping circuits for core reset Operation of an active clamping circuit formed by a switch and a reset Capacitor A resonant passive clamping circuit Two-transistor forward converter 3.7.7 Examples of practical designs. Case study A forward converter with RCD clamping circuit Forward converter with a reset transformer winding and synchronous rectification used in a consumer application for a USA typical input voltage range Design of a forward converter using the MAX8541 voltage-mode controller with synchronous rectifier 3.8 Isolated Aeuk Converter 3.9 Flyback Converter 3.9.1 Derivation of flyback converter 3.9.2 Operation of flyback converter in CCM and DCM Particularities of operation in DCM 3.9.3 Effects of the coupled-inductor leakage inductance Dissipative RCD snubber solution Transformer tertiary winding solution Two-transistor flyback converter Flyback converter with active clamping 3.9.4 Small-signal model of the flyback converter 3.9.5 Examples of designs of flyback converter. Cases study Practical considerations a) Design example presented by Vishay Siliconix b) Flyback converter for battery-powered CCD (charge coupled devices) c) A flyback converter designed for telecommunication industry 3.10 Push-Pull Converter 3.10.1 Push-pull converter of buck type (voltage-driven) 3.10.2 CCM Operation of the Push-Pull Converter 3.10.3 Non-Idealities in Push-Pull Converter 3.10.4 DCM operation 3.10.5 Push-Pull Converter of Boost Type (Current-Driven) 3.10.6 Design Example (Application Note of National Semiconductor ) 3.11 Half-Bridge Converter 3.11.1 The Buck-Type Half-Bridge Topology 3.11.2 CCM Operation 3.11.3 Input-to-Output Voltage Conversion Ratio and Design of Half-Bridge Converter in CCM Operation 3.11.4 Practical Aspects 3.11.5 DCM Operation 3.11.6 Current-Driven Half-Bridge Converter 3.12 Full-Bridge Converter 3.12.1 Full-Bridge Topology 3.12.2 CCM Operation of the Buck-Type Full-Bridge Converter 3.12.3 Input-to-Output Voltage Conversion Ratio and Design of Buck-Type Full-Bridge Converter in CCM Operation 3.12.4 Practical Aspects 3.12.5 Other Transistors Control Schemes. Phase-Shift Control 3.12.6 Current-Driven Full-Bridge Converter Highlights of the Chapter References Problems Chapter 4 DERIVED STRUCTURES OF DC - DC CONVERTERS 4.1 Current Doubler Rectifier ( CDR) for Push-Pull , Half-Bridge and Full-Bridge Converters 4.1.1 Cyclical Operation of Current Doubler Rectifier 4.1.2 Voltage conversion ratio of converters with CDR 4.1.3 Ripple Cancellation in the Output Current 4.1.4 Other Structures of CDR 4.1.5 Penalties of CDR 4.1.6 Current-Tripler and Current-Multiplier 4.2 Voltage Doubler and Voltage Multiplier Rectifier 4.2.1 Full-Wave Bridge Voltage Doubler 4.2.2 Greinacher Multiplier 4.2.3 Voltage Tripler and General Cockcroft-Walton Multiplier . 4.2.4 Voltage Doubler with One Capacitor 4.2.5 Fibonacci Voltage Multiplier 4.2.6 Voltage Dividers 4.2.7 "Economy" Power Supply and the 4 8 Power Supply 4.3 Quadratic Converters 4.3.1 Quadratic Buck Converters 4.3.2 Buck-Boost Quadratic Converters ( D<0.5 ) 4.4 Two-Switch Buck-Boost Converter 4.4.1 Buck-Boost Converters Obtained by Interleaving a Boost and a Buck Switching Cell 4.4.2 Z-Source Buck-Boost Converter with Positive Output Voltage 4.5 Switched-Capacitor / Switched-Inductor -- Integrated Basic Converters 4.5.1 Family of Converters Based on Switched-Capacitor / Switched-Inductor Structures 4.5.1.1 Switched-capacitor / switched-inductor building blocks 4.5.1.2 Switched-capacitor / switched-inductor integrated buck converters 4.5.1.3 Switched-capacitor / switched-inductor integrated boost converters 4.5.1.4 Switched-capacitor / switched-inductor integrated buck-boost, Aeuk, Sepic and Zeta converters 4.5.2 KY converter 4.5.2.1 First-order KY converter 4.5.2.2 Second-order KY converter 4.5.3 Watkins-Johnson converter 4.6 The Sheppard-Taylor Converter 4.6.1 CCM operation 4.6.2 Discontinuous conduction modes operation 4.6.3 Isolated Sheppard-Taylor converter 4.7 Converters with Low Voltage Stress on the Active Switches . 4.7.1 Four-switch full-bridge -- type converter with Vin/2 primary-side switches voltage stress 4.7.2 Converter with Vin/3 voltage stress on the primary-side switches 4.7.3 Three-level boost converter 4.8 Tapped-Inductor Based Converters 4.8.1 Tapped-inductor buck converter and VRMs (Voltage Regulator Module) 4.8.1.1 Diode-to-tap and Switch-to-tap buck converters 4.8.1.2 Rail-to-tap (Watkins-Johnson type) tapped-inductor buck converter for automotive applications 4.8.1.3 Voltage regulator module (VRM) 4.8.2 Tapped-inductor boost converter 4.9 Current-Driven Dual-Bridge Converter with Center-Tapped Inductor Highlights of the Chapter References Problems

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この本の情報

書名 Fundamentals and hard-switching converters
著作者等 Ioinovici, Adrian
Chung, Henry
シリーズ名 Power electronics and energy conversion systems
出版元 Wiley
刊行年月 2013
ページ数 xvii, 849 p.
大きさ 26 cm
ISBN 9780470710999
NCID BB14040707
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言語 英語
出版国 イギリス
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