A five-year-long cooperation between historians from all over Europe, this collection offers the first in-depth analysis of the various ways to write and to conceptualise history beyond the nation-state-container. Examples discussed range from world and global history to regional, imperial and European frames for the understanding of history. Authors combine comparative approaches with those analysing entanglements between the historiographies in various European countries. The volume argues that there is an pre-history, that is, a longer tradition of the transnationalization of historical culture and historical science. It seeks to substantiate the claim that history writing reflected the globality of its time as much as followed the nationalization of the societies in which it was produced.