Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the ophthalmic additives responsible for modulating acute corneal epithelial toxicity induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and investigate the ability of polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40) and polysorbate 80 (PS-80) to reduce the corneal toxicity and antimicrobial effects of BAC.Methods: Cytotoxicity of the additives, which included glycerin, polyvinyl alcohol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and PS-80, on rabbit corneal epithelial cells was examined using the cell proliferation assay in the presence and absence of 0.02% BAC. The corneal transepithelial electrical resistance change after a 60-second exposure to HCO-40 or PS-80 mixed with 0.02% BAC was measured in living rabbits. Corneal damage was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The antimicrobial activities of HCO-40 and PS-80 with 0.02% BAC against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were assessed.Results: Of all the tested additives, only PS-80 could prevent the BAC-induced cytotoxicity. Corneal epithelial barrier function disorder caused by 0.02% BAC was significantly alleviated by either PS-80 or HCO-40 in a concentration-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy images showed an improvement of BAC-induced corneal epithelial toxicity after the addition of HCO-40 or PS-80. The antimicrobial effect of the BAC against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. pneumoniae was reduced after adding HCO-40 or PS-80.Conclusions: HCO-40 and PS-80 reduce acute corneal toxicity and the antimicrobial effect of BAC. Possible interactions between BAC and other additives should be taken into consideration when evaluating the toxicity and antibacterial properties of BAC.;開始ページ : 521;終了ページ : 526;元資料の権利情報 : © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.;元資料の権利情報 : This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Cornea, 33(5), pp.521-526; 2014.