Nonverbal behavior in interpersonal relations

Virginia Peck Richmond, James C. McCroskey, Mark L. Hickson III

Nonverbal Behavior in Interpersonal Relations offers a complete and precise explanation of the principles of nonverbal communication and their application in everyday life. The authors draw from a wide variety of disciplines and upon their vast experience as instructors, consultants, and corporate trainers to offer a unique blend of social scientific and humanistic approaches to the study of nonverbal behavior. This well-researched book offers conclusions about the research in an easy-to-read style. Each chapter includes exercises, activities, self-tests, or questionnaires that help readers explore and understand the actual and potential impact of nonverbal behaviors on communication. The text also helps readers build the skills they will need to become competent nonverbal communicators in today's global community.

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[目次]

  • Preface xvii 1 Communication and Nonverbal Behavior 1 Myths about Nonverbal Communication 1 Nonverbal versus Verbal Messages 3 The Linguistic Distinction 3 The Continuity Distinction 4 The Processing Distinction 4 The Outcome Distinction 5 The Absolute Distinction 5 Intentionality and Nonverbal Communication 5 Culture and Nonverbal Communication 7 Functions of Nonverbal Messages 7 Complementing 8 Contradicting 8 Accenting 9 Repeating 9 Regulating 10 Substituting 10 Categories of Nonverbal Messages 11 Physical Appearance 12 Gesture and Movement 12 Face and Eye Behavior 12 Vocal Behavior 12 Space 13 Touch 13 Environment 13 Time 13 Glossary of Terminology 14 2 Physical Appearance 15 Attractiveness 15 Types of Attractiveness 16 What Is Attractive Today May Be Out Tomorrow 17 Image Fixation 20 Judgments Generated 22 Attractiveness: A Double-Edged Sword? 22 Effects of Attractiveness 23 Personal Body Concept 26 Nonverbal Messages of Body Shape and Size 27 Nonverbal Messages of Height, Weight, and Skin Color 32 Nonverbal Messages of Hair 34 Appearance and Dress 35 Why Do People Dress the Way They Do? 36 Generalizations about Dress 43 Artifacts and Accessories 44 Glossary of Terminology 46 3 Gesture and Movement 47 A Theoretical Look at Gesture and Movement 49 Structural Approach to Kinesics 49 External Variable Approach to Kinesics 51 Types of Gesture and Movement 51 Emblems 52 Illustrators 53 Regulators 55 Affect Displays 57 Adaptors 57 Deception cues 59 Posture 60 How Does Posture Communicate? 61 Communicative Potential of Posture 62 Movement and COMMUNICATOR STYLE 63 The Dramatic Style 63 The Dominant Style 63 The Animated Style 64 The Relaxed Style 64 The Attentive Style 64 The Open Style 64 The Friendly Style 65 The Contentious Style 65 The Impression-Leaving Style 65 General Communicator Styles 65 Effects of Body Movements and Gestures 66 Communicator Style 66 Simplifying Encoding and Decoding 67 Role of Illustrators in Decoding 67 Positive and Negative Perceptions 67 Research on Immediacy 67 Glossary of Terminology 68 4 Facial Behavior 69 Importance of Facial Expressions 69 Perspectives on Acquisition and Development 70 Perspective 1: Evolution and Natural Selection 70 Perspective 2: External Factors 71 Perspective 3: Innate and Learned 71 Facial Management and Expression of Emotion 74 Styles of Facial Expressions 76 Primary Affect Displays and Communication 78 Variations of Facial Expressions 82 Glossary of Terminology 84 5 Eye Behavior 85 Properties and Functions of Eye Behavior 85 Properties of Eye Behavior 85 Functions of Eye Behavior 86 Types of Eye Behaviors 88 CLEMs 89 Eye Behavior and Individual Differences 93 Nature of Relationships 93 Cultural Differences 94 Contextual Differences 94 Personality Differences 94 Gender Differences 95 Glossary of Terminology 96 6 Vocal Behavior 97 Categories of Vocal Behavior 98 Voice Set 98 Voice Qualities and Vocalizations 99 Voice Printing 100 Silence and Pauses 101 Uses of Silence in Communication 102 Vocal Behavior and Turn-Interaction Management 103 Turn-Maintaining 103 Turn-Yielding 103 Turn-Requesting 104 Turn-Denying 104 Interruptions 105 Accent and Dialect 105 Effects of Vocal Behavior 107 Vocal Behavior and Emotions 107 Vocal Behavior and Personality 109 Vocal Behavior and Learning 111 Vocal Behavior and Persuasion 112 Vocal Behavior and Attractiveness 113 Vocal Behavior and Confidence 113 Vocal Characteristics of Good Delivery 114 Glossary of Terminology 115 7 Space and Territoriality 117 Phenomenon of Territoriality 118 Categories of Territory 119 Territorial Defense and Encroachment 120 Types of Negative Encroachment 123 Encroachment Reactions 124 Factors Influencing Territorial Defense 126 Personal Space 127 Interpersonal Distance 127 Gender Differences 128 Cultural Differences 128 Age Differences 129 Personality Differences 130 Stigmas 130 Psychiatric and Deviant Groups 130 Crowding and Density 131 The Impact of High Density 132 Glossary of Terminology 133 8 Touch and Communication 135 Life-Span Development and Touch 136 Touch in Animals 136 Human Development 138 Categories of Touch 140 Professional-Functional Touch 142 Social-Polite Touch 143 Friendship-Warmth Touch 143 Love-Intimacy Touch 143 Sexual-Arousal Touch 144 Touch Norms and Communication 145 Cultural Differences 146 Gender Differences 147 Touch Apprehension 148 What Does Touch Communicate? 150 Touch and Emotion 150 Touch and Status 150 Touch and Self-Intimacy 151 Effects of Touch Deprivation 151 Glossary of Terminology 152 9 Environment and Physical Surroundings 153 Perceptual Characteristics of Environment 154 Perception of Formality 154 Perception of Warmth 155 Perception of Privacy 156 Perception of Familiarity 156 Perception of Constraint 157 Perception of Distance 157 Architecture and Environment 158 Spatial Arrangement 160 The Shapes of Tables 161 Seating Arrangement 162 Arrangement of Office Space 165 Other Environmental Factors 166 Environmental Attractiveness 166 Color in the Environment 167 Lighting in the Environment 169 Temperature and the Environment 169 Scent and Smell 170 Importance of Scents 170 Glossary of Terminology 176 10 Time 177 Time Orientations 177 Psychological Time Orientation 178 Biological Time Orientation 179 Cultural Time Orientation 183 Punctuality 185 Monochronic and Polychronic Time 186 Effects of the Use of Time 187 Glossary of Terminology 189 11 Immediacy and Communication 190 Immediacy 190 Verbal Immediacy 191 Nonverbal Behaviors 193 Nonverbal Immediacy 195 Physical Appearance 195 Gesture and Body Movements 197 Facial Expression and Eye Behavior 199 Vocal Behavior 200 Spatial Behavior 201 Tactile Behavior 202 Environmental Factors 203 Scent and Smell 205 Temporal Factors 205 Outcomes of Immediacy 205 Increased Liking, Affiliation, and Affect 206 More Approachable Communication Style 206 More Responsiveness, Understanding, and Assertiveness 206 Increased Solidarity between Participants 207 Decreased Anxiety 207 Decreased Status Differences 207 Increased Perceptions of Communication Competence 207 Drawbacks of Immediacy 208 Glossary of Terminology 210 12 Female-Male Nonverbal Communication 211 Definition Issues: Sex and Gender 211 Development of Nonverbal Behavior in Females and Males 212 Distinctive and Similar Characteristics: The Dilemma 213 Appearance and Attractiveness 215 Gesture and Movement 216 Face and Eye Behavior 217 Vocal Behavior 221 Space 223 Touch 224 Liking and Courtship of the American Female and Male 226 Avoiding Problems 228 Nonverbal Sensitivity 228 Advantages of Immediacy 229 Disadvantages of Immediacy 230 The Androgynous Person 230 Glossary of Terminology 232 13 Supervisor and Employee Relationships 233 Distinctive Characteristics 234 Role of Nonverbal Messages 235 Physical Appearance 236 Gesture and Movement 240 Face and Eye Behavior 241 Vocal Behavior 242 Space 242 Touch 243 Environment 244 Time 246 Conclusions about Supervisor-Employee Relationships 247 Immediacy in the Workplace 249 Advantages of Immediacy 249 Disadvantages of Immediacy 249 Glossary of Terminology 250 14 Teacher-Student Nonverbal Relationships 251 Teacher Roles 251 The Teacher as Speaker 251 The Teacher as Moderator 253 The Teacher as Trainer 255 The Teacher as Manager 256 The Teacher as a Coordinator 258 The Teacher as Controller, Supervisor, and Helper 258 Role of Nonverbal Communication 259 Instructor Appearance 261 Student Appearance 262 Gesture and Movement 263 Facial Behavior 264 Eye Behavior 266 Vocal Behavior 266 Space 267 Touch 268 Environment 269 Time 275 Outcomes of Teacher Immediacy 275 Potential Drawbacks of Teacher Immediacy 276 Glossary of Terminology 277 15 The Influence of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom 278 Legal Settings 278 Non-Jury Pretrial Practice 279 Jury and Non-Jury Trials 280 Non-Jury Proceedings 280 Jury Trials 282 Jury Selection 283 Direct Examination 290 Cross-Examination 293 Opening Statements 294 Closing Arguments or Summation 295 Nonverbal Communication by Judges 298 And No One Objected-For the Record 298 The Art of Judicial Misconduct 298 Judges' Instructions to Juries: Vocalics 299 The Changing Legal Context 300 Glossary of Terminology 300 16 Intercultural Relationships 302 Defining Intercultural Communication 303 Characteristics of Culture 306 Foundations of Culture 306 Nonverbal Behavior 308 Appearance and Attractiveness 309 Gesture and Movement 310 Face and Eye Behavior 316 Vocal Behavior 318 Space 319 Touch 320 Environment 322 Scent 323 Time 323 Goals to Seek 324 Glossary of Terminology 327 References and Selected Readings 328 Index 351

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この本の情報

書名 Nonverbal behavior in interpersonal relations
著作者等 Hickson, Mark
McCroskey, James C.
Richmond, Virginia P.
Hickson Mark L. III
出版元 Allyn & Bacon
刊行年月 c2012
版表示 7th ed
ページ数 xii, 356 p.
大きさ 23 cm
ISBN 9780205042302
NCID BB06155984
※クリックでCiNii Booksを表示
言語 英語
出版国 アメリカ合衆国
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